# Apparently incorrect Fourier Series

While trying to compute Fourier Series, i find that It doesn't evaluate both positive and negative parts and hence apparently giving wrong answer. Below is the code that i tried:

 Clear[t, a, b, c, fn];
fn[t_] := (a*Cos[t])/(b + c*(Cos[t])^2)^2;
FourierSeries[fn[t], t, 3]


and it gives following output:

 (8 a E^(3 I t))/c^2


This can't be correct since i started with a real function. I then tried computing the co-efficient directly as below:

 1/(2 \[Pi]) Integrate[fn[t]*E^(3 I t), {t, -\[Pi], \[Pi]}]
1/(2 \[Pi]) Integrate[fn[t]*E^(-3 I t), {t, -\[Pi], \[Pi]}]


that gives:

(4 a)/c^2
(4 a)/c^2


What is the reason for this difference? Could someone point me out as to how i can make Mathematica do the same for me?

• Did you check the FourierParameters setting? – J. M.'s ennui Oct 13 '17 at 10:45
• No, i wasn't aware of it! – Krishna Tripathi Oct 13 '17 at 10:48
• Right, so check that the setting is compatible with whatever definition of the Fourier series you're using, and set accordingly. (This applies for all Fourier-related Mathematica functions.) – J. M.'s ennui Oct 13 '17 at 10:49
• I can't see how i am going to use it in the code i've written above. I found something similar for Fourier transform, but not for the series. – Krishna Tripathi Oct 13 '17 at 10:59
• There is something off here.. FourierCoefficient would seem to be what you want, however it Yields 8 a/c^2 . Also if I specify values for the constants the direct integration and the FourierCoefficient give completely different results. Maybe someone who gets this should write up an answer. – george2079 Oct 13 '17 at 15:27

## 1 Answer

I think FourierSeries and FourierCoefficient are bugged here. To get the result you want, you could use FourierCosSeries or FourierCosCoefficient, or, if you're careful, Integrate.

We can simplify a little by pulling a/b^2 out and defining c -> b d, to give

f = Cos[t]/(1 + d Cos[t]^2)^2;


Then we have

series = FourierCosSeries[f, t, 3, Assumptions -> d > 0]

(* Cos[t]/(1 + d)^(3/2) +
((8 (-1 + Sqrt[1 + d]) + d (-12 - 3 d + 8 Sqrt[1 + d])) Cos[3 t])/(d^2 (1 + d)^(3/2)) *)


The result looks pretty good for d = 1:

Plot[Evaluate[{f, series} /. d -> 1], {t, -Pi, Pi}] You can also get the correct results for the Fourier coefficients using Integrate if you assume that d > 0:

Table[Integrate[f Exp[-k I t], {t, -Pi, Pi}, Assumptions -> d > 0]/(2 Pi), {k, -3, 3, 2}]

(*
{
(8 (-1 + Sqrt[1 + d]) + d (-12 - 3 d + 8 Sqrt[1 + d]))/(2 d^2 (1 + d)^(3/2)),
1/(2 (1 + d)^(3/2)),
1/(2 (1 + d)^(3/2)),
(8 (-1 + Sqrt[1 + d]) + d (-12 - 3 d + 8 Sqrt[1 + d]))/(2 d^2 (1 + d)^(3/2))
}
*)


With no assumptions, however, you won't get useful results:

Table[Integrate[f Exp[-k I t], {t, -Pi, Pi}]/(2 Pi), {k, -3, 3, 2}]

(* {0, 0, 0, 0} *)


Now, what is going on with FourierSeries?

FourierSeries[f, t, 3]

(* (8 E^(3 I t))/d^2 *)


Not really sure, but note that it is giving the same result as for the function expanded around d -> Infinity:

Normal@Series[f, {d, Infinity, 0}]

(* Sec[t]^3/d^2 *)

FourierSeries[Sec[t]^3/d^2, t, 3]

(* (8 E^(3 I t))/d^2 *)


This is clearly wrong. It isn't even the correct series for Sec[t]^3, and adding assumptions on d doesn't help here. FourierCoefficient gives the same thing:

Table[FourierCoefficient[Sec[t]^3/d^2, t, k], {k, -3, 3, 2}]

(* {0, 0, 0, 8/d^2} *)


If we pull out the d^2, we get a slightly more reasonable result:

Table[FourierCoefficient[Sec[t]^3, t, k], {k, -3, 3, 2}]/d^2

(* {4/d^2, 0, 0, 4/d^2} *)


So it seems like there are definitely some problems going on here.

• Nice! Consider sending a bug report, perhaps? – J. M.'s ennui Oct 14 '17 at 6:31