# How to symbolically solve this transcendental equation

The equation below shows up when dealing with geodesic curves on elliptic paraboloids:

$$\begin{equation} u-c^2=u(1+4c^2)\sin^2\left(v-2c \ln\left(k(2\sqrt{u-c^2}+\sqrt{4u+1})\right)\right) \tag{1} \end{equation}$$

Obtaining a solution for $$v(u)$$ is rather straightforward using Solve, like so:

Solve[u-c^2==u(1+4 c^2) Sin[v-2c Log[k (2 Sqrt[u-c^2]+Sqrt[4u+1])]]^2,v,Reals]


[output omitted]

It would be much more convenient to find the inverse function $$u(v)$$, so I tried solving for $$u$$, but MMA gave up with "... cannot be solve with the methods available to Solve". That's when I gave Reduce a shot:

Reduce[u-c^2==u(1+4c^2)Sin[v-2c Log[k\left(2 Sqrt[u-c^2]+Sqrt[4u+1]\right)]]^2,u,Reals]


Same message as before.

Is there a way to make this equation more tractable for Mathematica, to let it arrive at a symbolic solution for $$u(v)$$?

NB: $$c$$ and $$k$$ are constants, more precisely $$c,k \in \mathbb{R}$$; $$u \geq 0$$ ($$u$$ denotes the radius)

Edit: How can we obtain the paraboloid geodesic $$(1)$$ above?

First, define the paraboloid surface as follows:

$$\begin{equation}(u,v)\mapsto\begin{pmatrix}\sqrt{u}\cos{v} \\ \sqrt{u}\sin{v} \\ u \end{pmatrix} \tag{2}\end{equation}$$

In order to trace out a complete paraboloid, let $$u\geq 0$$ and $$v \in [0,2\pi)$$. I would rather use $$r$$ and $$\varphi$$ to make their meaning a little more clear, but let's stick to the usual naming scheme w.r.t. differential geometry.

Next, calculate the general solution to the geodesics using the Euler-Lagrange equation:

$$\begin{equation} \underbrace{\frac{\frac{\partial P}{\partial v}+2v\,'\frac{\partial Q}{\partial v}+v\,'^2\frac{\partial R}{\partial v}}{2\sqrt{P+2Qv\,'+Rv\,'^2}}}_{\displaystyle{=0}}-\frac{d}{du}\left(\frac{Q+Rv'}{\sqrt{P+2Qv\,'+Rv\,'^2}}\right)=0 \end{equation}$$

$$P, Q, R$$ are the coefficients of the first fundamental form; I managed to verify that the solution indeed matches equation $$(1)$$ given in the literature, see here.

Rearrange $$(1)$$ so we have $$v(u)$$, and use that inside $$(2)$$ to describe geodesics that travel across the paraboloid surface.

I was able to come up with a Notebook which computes the integration constants $$c,k$$ to yield the specific geodesic passing through two points $$(u_1,v_1),(u_2,v_2)$$.

However, if these points have the same "height" on the paraboloid, that is $$u_1=u_2$$, Mathematica won't find a solution. I assume knowing the inverse function $$u(v)$$ would be helpful here.

• At best you can find an inverse series InverseSeries[ Series[c^2 + (1 + 4 c^2) u Sin[v - 2 c Log[k (2 Sqrt[-c^2 + u] + Sqrt[1 + 4 u])]]^2, {u, 0, 4}]] but it's extremely unlikely you'll ever find a closed form inverse for a transcendental problem like this. Only numerical solutions are possible, and that might include fixed point iteration too. Sep 5, 2020 at 22:16
• This could be a good question if you'd provide appropriate meaning of constants and variables with more or less detailed information how the equation can be derived from description of geodesics. I guess that the parametrisation in terms of u and v is not optimal, nevertheless providing appropriate restriction on the variables and parameteres one would get much more. If one can use $v(u)$ it is also possible to have $u(v)$ using InverseFunction with appropriate restrictions although I cannot promise that analytical formula can be obtained. Sep 5, 2020 at 23:52
• In any case it would be constructive to play with e.g. Manipulate[ContourPlot[u-c^2==u(1+4 c^2) Sin[v-2c Log[k (2 Sqrt[u-c^2]+Sqrt[4u+1])]]^2,{v,-4,4},{u,0,8},AspectRatio->Automatic,ContourStyle->Thick],{c,-3,3},{k,0.1,3}] to get an idea what one could expect. Sep 5, 2020 at 23:55
• @Artes: added some info to my post above. Sep 6, 2020 at 12:08
• I have never seen ContourPlot used in this way - how would I find an exact solution, if there is any? Sep 9, 2020 at 16:14

In situations like this I use InverseFunction. Although it does not generate an analytical expression, you still end up with something which returns an exact result rather than an approximate one:

lhsMinusRhs[c_, k_][u_, v_] := u-c^2 - u(1+4 c^2) Sin[v-2c Log[k (2 Sqrt[u-c^2]+Sqrt[4u+1])]]^2
assumptions[c_, k_][u_, v_] := u >= 0;
uFunction[c_, k_][v_] :=
InverseFunction[
Function[{u},
ConditionalExpression[
lhsMinusRhs[c, k][u, v],
assumptions[c, k][u, v]
] // Evaluate
]
] // Evaluate;


For example, uFunction[3, 4] will return an exact Root object corresponding to $$(c, k) = (3, 4)$$ and $$v = 5$$.

uFunction[3, 4]
(* Root[{..., 16.33...}] *)
lhsMinusRhs[3, 4][%, 5] // FullSimplify
(* 0 *)


Note that InverseFunction makes no guarantees on which branch of the inverse will be chosen. If I am after a specific branch, the approach I take is to make assumptions specific enough to pin down the unique value corresponding to that branch.

• It seems that InverseFunction might have a bug: (219309) Sep 9, 2020 at 6:38
• Your code for uFunction[3, 4] // N returns approximately 16.33 on my machine as well, so I tried to plot uFunction to see how it behaves for different values of $c,k$: Manipulate[Plot[uFunction[a, b][val] // N, {val, 0, 2 \[Pi]}], {{a, 3}, -5, 5, Appearance -> "Labeled"}, {{b, 4}, -5, 5, Appearance -> "Labeled"}], but I get an empty plot, no matter what... Sep 17, 2020 at 12:53
• (1/2) @user2286339 I'm not sure why this happens, but InverseFunction seems reluctant to evaluate when supplied with inexact input; compare the output of uFunction[3, 4] // N and uFunction[3, 4][5.] // N. An empty plot results because Plot numericises the sampling values of val. Sep 17, 2020 at 17:45
• (2/2) If the goal is to make a plot, I would not go down the analytical route. Instead I'd make a numerical function, e.g. uNumerical[u0_][c_, k_][v_] := FindRoot[lhsMinusRhs[c, k][#, v] &, {u0}] (where u0 is the initial guess), which is much faster to plot: Manipulate[Plot[uNumerical[a, b][val] // N, {val, 0, 2 \[Pi]}], {{a, 3}, -5, 5, Appearance -> "Labeled"}, {{b, 4}, -5, 5, Appearance -> "Labeled"}] Sep 17, 2020 at 17:45
• Originally, I wanted to rearrange eq. (1) in terms of $u$ which seems to have no analytical form, when @Artes hinted at using ContourPlot to find it, if there is one. How would I do that? His code snippet above (ContourPlot) suggests a 2\Pi periodicity, but that is all that I was able to gather from the plot. Sep 17, 2020 at 20:11