# Mathematica integrates centered functions, but can not integrate shifted ones

Mathematica seems to integrate this function: $$\int \limits_{-\infty}^{\infty} d w\, \frac{\sin ^2\left(\frac{1}{2} wt \right)}{w^2} \frac{\frac{\gamma ^2}{4}}{ \left(w^2+\frac{\gamma ^2}{4}\right)}$$, which is Lorentzian product with Sinc squared.

But it can not integrate shifted version shifted by a constant value $$a>0$$: $$\int \limits_{-\infty}^{\infty} d w\, \frac{\sin ^2\left(\frac{1}{2} (a-w)t\right)}{(a-w)^2} \frac{\frac{\gamma ^2}{4}}{ \left((w-a)^2+\frac{\gamma ^2}{4}\right)}$$

Why would be that? Does not seem that integration would be different for shifted function. $$\gamma$$ and $$t$$ are variating parameters, width of Lorentzian peak and time, respectively.

Here is my code, I also use assumptions for integration to be easier:

Lorentz = (1/4) \[Gamma]^2/((w - a)^2 + (\[Gamma]^2/4));
Sincfunction = Sin[(1/2 (a - w)*t)]^2/(a - w)^2;

IIntegral2 =
Integrate[Lorentz*Sincfunction, {w, - Infinity, Infinity},
Assumptions -> {Im[\[Gamma]] == 0, Re[\[Gamma]] > 0, Im[t] == 0,
Re[t] >= 0, Im[a] == 0, Re[a] >= 0  , 1/2*Re[\[Gamma]] < Re[a],
Im[w] == 0 }]


Then to simplify I usually expand it into series

Series[IIntegral2, {t, Infinity, 2}, {\[Gamma], Infinity, 1}] // Normal
Series[IIntegral2, {t, 0, 2}, {\[Gamma], 0, 2}] // Normal



So when I set $$a=0$$, everything works fine, bet when $$a>0$$, then Mathematica gets stuck.

• Internal code is probably not seeing the right change of variable. May 19, 2020 at 20:14
• Would there be a way to correct it or it is up to software developers? May 20, 2020 at 6:25
• A little of both, perhaps. It never hurts to express a problem in the simplest (for the software) form possible. It's also possible the software will improve in future to automate this. May 20, 2020 at 14:23
• In the meantime, it wouldn't hurt to report this to Support (and perhaps link to this thread), so it gets on record. May 20, 2020 at 14:41
• Ok, thanks for the suggestions! May 24, 2020 at 11:54

Mathematica is able to integrate both cases, but for the shifted function 100 times longer calculation is needed.

Clear[Lorentz,Sincfunction]
Lorentz[a_,γ_,w_]:=(1/4) γ^2/((w-a)^2+(γ^2/4));
Sincfunction[a_,t_,w_]=Sin[(1/2 (a-w)*t)]^2/(a-w)^2;


Compare the times

Integrate[Lorentz[a,γ,w] Sincfunction[a,t,w],{w,-Infinity,Infinity},Assumptions->t>0&&γ>0&&a∈Reals]//Timing
Out= {99.977,(π (-2+2 E^(-((t γ)/2))+t γ))/(2 γ)}


and

Integrate[Lorentz[0,γ,w] Sincfunction[0,t,w],{w,-Infinity,Infinity},Assumptions->t>0&&γ>0]//Timing
Out= {1.00345,(π (-2+2 E^(-((t γ)/2))+t γ))/(2 γ)}


The results are identical. In order to understand the large time-difference compare the respective indefinite integrations:

Integrate[Lorentz[a,γ,w] Sincfunction[a,t,w],w,Assumptions->t>0&&γ>0&&a∈Reals];//Timing
Integrate[Lorentz[0,γ,w] Sincfunction[0,t,w],w,Assumptions->t>0&&γ>0];//Timing
Out= {0.691755,Null}
Out= {0.128017,Null}


Thus, most of the time is spent to establish that antiderivatives are continuous functions and taking the limits according to the fundamental theorem of calculus.