I have a relatively simple dataset that provides a list of values for a list of countries:

data = Dataset[{<|"GeoAreaName" -> Entity["Country", "Canada"], 
    "Value" -> 5.2|>, <|
    "GeoAreaName" -> Entity["Country", "Swaziland"], "Value" -> 398|>, 
     <|"GeoAreaName" -> Entity["Country", "SouthAfrica"], 
    "Value" -> 781|>, <|
    "GeoAreaName" -> Entity["Country", "Switzerland"], "Value" -> 7.8|>, 
     <|"GeoAreaName" -> Entity["Country", "UnitedStates"], 
    "Value" -> 3.1|>}]

I am wanting to thread the values from the first key to the values of the second key so that I get:

{Entity["Country", "Canada"] -> 5.2, Entity["Country", "Swaziland"] -> 398, Entity["Country", "SouthAfrica"] -> 781, Entity["Country", "Switzerland"] -> 7.8, 
 Entity["Country", "UnitedStates"] -> 3.1}

I am able to do this with the following code:

Thread[Normal[data[[All, 1]]] -> Normal[data[[All, 2]]]]

While it works fine, I look at the code and think there must a simpler way that doesn't require me to first extract two lists and then recombine.

The actual code I am working on has quite a few more complexities than what I have listed here, so any simplification I can find will be greatly multiplied across all the work.

Curious if I am taking the long way around or if there is something more straight forward


3 Answers 3



Rule @@@ data

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Normal[Rule @@@ data]

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If you have more than two columns and you want to link two of them with Rule you can do

data[Rule @@@ # &, {"GeoAreaName", "Value"}] (* or *)
Rule @@@ data[All, {"GeoAreaName", "Value"}]

or data[Rule @@@ # &, {1, 2}] if "GeoAreaName" and "Value" are first two columns.


  • Rule @@@ data and data[Rule @@@ # &] and Rule @@@ Values @ data give the same result.
  • Rule @@@ Normal @ data and Normal[Rule @@@ data] give the same result.

What about

Rule @@@ Values@Normal@data



You may use Query implicitly on the Dataset.

With data as in the OP.

data[All, Apply[Rule]]

Mathematica graphics

Or, for the entities as the keys.

data[Association, Apply[Rule]]

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You can enter the entity keys in natural language using Ctrl+=, typing the country name, and then hitting the normal Enter key (i.e. not the one on the number pad).

Hope this helps.

  • $\begingroup$ It is very helpful to see multiple solutions to the same problem. While using Rule@@@data answers the question exactly as I asked it, I have flagged your code in my "cheat sheet" for data manipulation because I am sure to use it in the future! $\endgroup$
    – kickert
    Jul 14, 2018 at 1:53

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