# Creating a vibrato in Mathematica

I am trying to get Mathematica to output a vibrato; a tone which has a frequency that slightly varies. To get a tone with a non-changing frequency, I use this command:

Play[Sin[440*2*Pi*t], {t, 0, 4}]


That works as expected.

Now, I would expect to be able to express the varying frequency like this:

$$440 + \sin(5\times 2\pi t)$$

This should result in the frequency varying between 439 Hz and 441 Hz, 5 times per second. If I replace the static 440 Hz in the previous Mathematica function, I get the following command:

Play[Sin[(440 + Sin[5*2*Pi*t])*2*Pi*t], {t, 0, 4}]


This sounds right in the beginning, but the variation in pitch (thus frequency seems to increase, if you listen to the output between 10 s and 20 s instead you can clearly hear that something is wrong.

The Mathematica documentation for the Play command mentions the following for to "Make a vibrato-like effect":

Play[(2 + Cos[40 t]) Sin[2000 t], {t, 0, 1}]


But from what I can tell that will vary the amplitude, not the frequency.

What am I doing wrong here? I'd be interested in both a solution for this specific mathematical problem as well as a more general answer to how to express a vibrato using a general mathematical function.

Most Google searches on this topic give you instructions for how to create a vibrato when singing.

• You have not defined the "vibrato version" of the $\sin$ function correctly. Play[Sin[(Sin[5*2*Pi*t]) + 440*2*Pi*t], {t, 0, 4}] does what you want – Stelios Oct 18 '15 at 18:53
• Oh I see, the issue with my attempt is that I end up with 440*2*Pi*t+Sin[5*2*Pi*t]*t (where the last t is wrong). I should've written it out on paper. Feel free to answer and I'll accept it (a bit more explanation would be nice, but not necessarily needed). – Jan Oct 19 '15 at 5:46
• See also this note by Quilez, where he also gets something equivalent to the one in @Stelios's comment. – J. M.'s torpor Jan 30 at 5:39

How about solving the harmonic oscillator equation with a time-varying frequency?

w[t_] := 2 Pi (440 + 5 Sin[10 * 2 Pi t])

func = NDSolveValue[{y''[t] + w[t]^2 y[t] == 0, y[0] == 1, y'[0] == 0}, y, {t, 0, 4}];

Play[func[t], {t, 0, 4}]

• While this gives the correct result, I would prefer a solution that only uses "common" mathematical functions that are also found outside of Mathematica (the trigonometrical functions in this case). – Jan Oct 18 '15 at 21:53

As an alternative, let's let the derivative of the phase vary with time.

A fixed tone will have $d \phi / d t = 2 \pi \cdot 440$. A vibrato that you want should have $d \phi / d t = 2 \pi (440 + \sin (2\pi\cdot5\cdot t))$. Integrating:

Integrate[440*2 π + 2 π Sin[5*2 π x], {x, 0, t}]
(* 880 π t + 2/5 Sin[5 π t]^2 *)


Playing:

Play[Sin[880 π t + 2/5 Sin[5 π t]^2], {t, 0, 4}]


As pointed out by Stelios I wrote the sinus function wrong.

Play[Sin[(440+Sin[5*2*Pi*t])*2*Pi*t], {t, 0, 4}]

Play[Sin[(Sin[5*2*Pi*t]) + 440*2*Pi*t], {t, 0, 4}]

The first would expand from $\sin((440+\sin(5 \times 2\pi t))\times 2\pi t)$ to $\sin(440\times 2\pi t+\sin(5 \times 2\pi t)\times 2\pi t)$, thus the last $t$ would result in an increase of the amplitude of the inner sine function, and thus over time produce the continually increasing frequency difference which I heard.