# Exact solutions of a linear second order differential equation

DSolve[ y''[x] + (a - (b x^2 - c) x^2) y[x] == 0, y[x], x]


• There is no solution for the anharmonic oscillator in terms of the elementary or any standard special function as far as I know. – Nikolay Gromov Sep 17 '15 at 12:13
• I get a solution in terms of DifferentialRoot. What version are using? – Michael E2 Sep 17 '15 at 13:31
• You should mention what is your motivation to find a solution. The solution space is five-dimentional (two numbers form initial/boundary conditions and three constants) and so it not a well posed question even though one can find an exact general solution. – Artes Aug 31 at 23:02

Since the 12.1 version of Mathematica we can solve exactly this differential equation explicitly in a symbolic form involving tri-confluent Heun function.

solHT[x_] = DSolveValue[ y''[x] + (a - (b*x^2 - c)*x^2)*y[x] == 0, y[x], x]

(C HeunT[-a - c^2/(4b), -2I Sqrt[-b], -I c/Sqrt[-b], 0, -2I Sqrt[-b],
x])/E^(((I/6) x (3c - 2b x^2))/Sqrt[-b]) +
E^(((I/6) x (3c - 2b x^2))/Sqrt[-b]) C^2 HeunT[-a - c^2/(4b), 2I Sqrt[-b],
I c/Sqrt[-b], 0, 2I Sqrt[-b], x]

solHT[x] // TraditionalForm The general solution involves three constants of the original differential equation $$a, b$$ and $$c$$ as well as two integration constants $$c_1$$ and $$c_2$$. We can also solve the equation prescribing symbolic constants and initial/boundary conditions, e.g.

With[{a = 3, b = 2, c = 1},
TraditionalForm[ ds = DSolveValue[{y''[x] + (a - (b x^2 - c)x^2)y[x] == 0,
y==0,y'==1}, y[x], x]//FullSimplify]] Plot[ ds, {x, -2, 2}, PlotStyle -> Thick] let's exploit another conditions:

With[{a = 1, b =-1/4, c = 1/2},
TraditionalForm[ ds2 = DSolveValue[{y''[x] + (a - (b x^2 - c)x^2)y[x] == 0,
y==2,y'==0}, y[x], x]//FullSimplify]] Plot[ ds2, {x, -5, 5}, PlotStyle -> Thick, WorkingPrecision -> 30] Exact symbolic solutions can be approximated with available analytic tools, e.g.

Series[ ds2, {x, 0, 14}] Mathematica can't solve analytically,but numerical yes can.

Clear["Global*"]
a = 3;
b = 2;
c = 1;
eq = {y''[x] + (a - (b*x^2 - c)*x^2)*y[x] == 0, y == 0, y' == 1};
sol = First@NDSolve[eq, y, {x, -2, 2}];
Plot[Evaluate[y[x] /. sol], {x, -2, 2}, PlotRange -> All,
PlotLegends -> {"y(x)"}, AxesLabel -> {x, y[x]}] MAPLE analytical solution: y[x] ==
C*HT[(2^(1/3)*3^(2/3)*(4*a*b + c^2))/(8*b^(4/3)),
0, (-c*2^(1/3)*3^(1/3))/(2*b^(2/3)), (-2^(1/3)*3^(2/3)*b^(1/6)*x)/
3]*Exp[(x*(2*b*x^2 - 3*c))/(6*Sqrt[b])] +
C*HT[(2^(1/3)*3^(2/3)*(4*a*b + c^2))/(8*b^(4/3)),
0, (-c*2^(1/3)*3^(1/3))/(2*b^(2/3)), (2^(1/3)*3^(2/3)*b^(1/6)*x)/
3]*Exp[(-(b*x^2 - 3/2*c)*x)/(3*Sqrt[b])]
`

You can be expressed this equation by the series:

$$y(x)=c_1 \text{HT1} \exp \left(\frac{x \left(2 b x^2-3 c\right)}{6 \sqrt{b}}\right)+c_2 \text{HT2} \exp \left(-\frac{\left(b x^2-\frac{3 c}{2}\right) x}{3 \sqrt{b}}\right)$$

were HT1 and HT2 is: and References for Triconfluent Heun function:

1.Decarreau, A.; Dumont-Lepage, M.C.; Maroni, P.; Robert, A.; and Ronveaux, A. "Formes Canoniques de Equations confluentes de l'equation de Heun". Annales de la Societe Scientifique de Bruxelles. Vol. 92 I-II, (1978): 53-78.

2.Ronveaux, A. ed. Heun's Differential Equations. Oxford University Press, 1995.

3.Slavyanov, S.Y., and Lay, W. Special Functions, A Unified Theory Based on Singularities. Oxford Mathematical Monographs, 2000.