# Trouble simplifying using Replace

I have the following expression:

w.a.b.r+w.c.d.r


I want to get:

w.(a.b+c.d).r


So far I used ReplaceRepeated:

In= ReplaceRepeated[w.a.b.r+w.c.d.r,{
Plus[Dot[FRONT__,AA__,BACK__],Dot[FRONT__,BB__,BACK__]]->Dot[FRONT,Plus[AA,BB],BACK]
}]


However this gives:

Out= w.(a+b+c+d).r


Looking into AA shows that it equals:

Sequence[a, b]


Obviously the Dot operator is not begin retained in AA and BB so instead of a.b+c.d I get a+b+c+d. How do I fix this?

• Use :> in place of -> and change Plus[AA,BB] to Plus[Dot[AA], Dot[BB]]. (You saw that AA is matching Sequence[a, b], so you've got to wrap it in Dot; otherwise, Plus[AA, BB] is Plus[a, b, c, d].) – march Jul 27 '15 at 17:18
• @march Thanks! That works, but now there is an issue. If I have instead w.g.a.b.r+w.g.c.d.r I want to get w.g.(a.b+c.d).r, but instead I get w.(g.a.b+g.c.d).r. How do I make sure that FRONT is the longest matching expression and not just the first term? – space_voyager Jul 27 '15 at 17:23
• This is a quick, untested kluge, but wrap one of the FRONT__'s in Longest. That will force the pattern matching to find the longest sequence that matches. – march Jul 27 '15 at 17:25
• @march Your suggestions seem to work for both of the OP's problems. I think it would be great if you had time to convert your comments to an answer, maybe with a bit of commentary as well. – MarcoB Jul 27 '15 at 17:26
• @MarcoB. Sure. As soon as he had the extra question, I figured it would be useful to write a full answer. I'l get to it when I can. – march Jul 27 '15 at 17:27

To answer the question as asked, we modify the code as follows:

replacementRule = Plus[
Dot[FRONT__, AA__, BACK__]
, Dot[FRONT__, BB__, BACK__]
] :> Dot[FRONT, Plus[Dot[AA], Dot[BB]], BACK]}]
w.a.b.r + w.c.d.r /. replacementRule


First, we have changed -> (Rule) to :> (RuleDelayed) so that when the expression is re-written, it will write it using the sub-expressions that match FRONT, AA, etc. instead of merely putting in the symbols FRONT, AA, etc.

Second, as the OP noted, AA__ matches a Sequence; in this case AA__ matches Sequence[a, b]. The re-write will not "remember" that a and b are Dotted, so we have to add this in by hand by wrapping AA with Dot.

As to the question that the OP posed in the comments: the OP wants to also re-write more complicated expressions. For instance, write w.g.a.b.r + w.g.c.d.r as w.g.(a.b + c.d).r. With the code as above, we get

w.g.a.b.r + w.g.c.d.r /. replacementRule
(* w.(g.a.b + g.c.d).r *)


The reason is that by default, the pattern matching algorithm matches the longest expression starting from the end of the list. To see what I mean, note that

{a, b, c, d} /. {x__, y__} :> {f[x], g[y]}


results in

{f[a], g[b, c, d]}


The patterns x__ and y__ both stand for sequence of one or more expressions, but since the pattern matching tries to match the longest matching expressions starting from the end of the list, y__ gets matched to Sequence[b, c, d], leaving x__ to match a.

In the OP's example, BACK__ matches only r because it has to match the same sequence of expressions in both expressions that are added together. However, since AA__ and BB__ can be different, the pattern matching eats up as many expressions to the left of r as it can, and this includes the g, leaving FRONT__ to match w.

To fix the problem, we force the pattern-matching to match FRONT__ to the longest sequence of expressions by adding wrapping it in Longest. Since FRONT__ is the same in both expressions that are added together, it will match the longest sub-expression that is the same. Thus, we modify replacementRule as

replacementRule = Plus[
Dot[Longest[FRONT__], AA__, BACK__]
, Dot[FRONT__, BB__, BACK__]
] :> Dot[FRONT, Plus[Dot[AA], Dot[BB]], BACK]}]


in which case

w.g.a.b.r + w.g.c.d.r /. replacementRule


yields

(* w.g.(a.b + c.d).r *)


Note that we don't need to modify the pattern as written to rewrite w.g.a.b.f.r + w.g.c.d.f.r as w.g.(a.b + c.d).f.r since, again, the pattern-matching matches the longest expression it can starting from the end of the list.

• Very comprehensive, thanks a lot! – space_voyager Jul 27 '15 at 19:22

It can be done with

w.a.b.r + w.c.d.r /.
Dot[FRONT_, AA__, BACK_] + Dot[FRONT_, BB__, BACK_] :>
Dot[FRONT, Dot[AA] + Dot[BB], BACK]

w.(a.b + c.d).r


However, I like function argument destructuring, so I would probably write

f[Dot[w_, a__, r_] + Dot[w_, b__, r_]] := w.(Dot[a] + Dot[b]).r
f[w.a.b.r + w.c.d.r]


w.(a.b + c.d).r

• From now on, I also like function destructuring. – march Jul 27 '15 at 18:23
• @march. Function argument destructuring is a very powerful, but IMO underused Mathematica feature. – m_goldberg Jul 27 '15 at 18:30
• Yes, I can see that. This kind of construction hadn't occurred to me. There are all kinds of problems I've had in the past that would have been solved way more simply in this way. (So +1.) – march Jul 27 '15 at 18:39