# Cutting away points that are not resonances

My situation is as follows. I have a whole bunch of data that I need to fit, which tends to look like this picture: As can be seen, there's three dips (resonances) and a whole bunch of noise around amplitude 1. Now, in order to fit this, it will be much easier if I only fit the resonances themselves; this means a whole lot less points will have to be evaluated. So what I'm trying to do is cut away the parts that I don't care about.

The first thing to do of course is find the resonances. I think this should be doable with FindPeaks (although it does seem as if this literally only works for peaks, so I suppose I'd have to use 1 - the data points). The problem is here that I'm not sure how to go from there. What I do is the following:

I use FindPeaks for 1-Abs[s2]] (Abs[s2]] is the data), with gaussian blurring 0, minimum sharpness 0, and minimum peak height equal to X times the standard deviation of the dataset. (Or, well it's better to just take a piece from the beginning of the data and calculate the standard deviation here, but that's a detail). In the example here, if I use, say, X = 10, then it does find all three resonances.

However, it doesn't just find a single point, it finds a whole bunch of them around each actual resonance (they are all peaks to the function). So here's my first question; how do I adjust this to just pick out the actual lowest point for each of these resonances, instead of a whole bunch of points around each resonance? The function returns a list of x and y coordinates, so maybe I should somehow find some local minima's here again, but I don't see how really.

The next part of my question brings us closer to the title of the post, and that is cutting away the other data. So say that I've now found my three resonances; what I want to do is cut away all data around each one of them, leaving only N points to the left and right. What this N is I already know, but this depends on the specifics of the experiment from which I took the data, so that's not too important. Perhaps one could use the Table command? Say the first resonance is at x = 7.6, which is the 100th element of the vector. Then I could say that the new list is now Table[{f1[[n]],s2[[n]]},{n,100-N,100+N}]. This would find it for the first resonance, and then maybe I can append this table with the lists from the other two resonances? But perhaps there is a much smarter way of doing this, in which case I'd be very happy to hear so.

Define dataset that looks like yours:

fr = 15;
interval = {7.4, 8.2};
nPoints = 10000;
deltaX = (interval[] - interval[])/nPoints;
blur = 0.01;
p1 = {0.2, 7.8, 0.002};
p2 = {0.1, 7.65, 0.001};
p4 = {0.11, 7.653, 0.001};
p3 = {0.15, 8.0, 0.002};
f[t_, p_List] := p[] Exp[-(t - p[])^2/(2 p[]^2 )];

s[t_] := 1 - (0.002 Sin[2 Pi fr t] + f[t, p1] + f[t, p2] + f[t, p3] +
f[t, p4]) + RandomReal[0.01];
xx = Range[interval[], interval[], deltaX];
yy = s /@ xx;


p2 and p4 give a really close peaks. Depending on your blur parameter they can be counted as one or two.

fData = GaussianFilter[yy, blur/deltaX];
peaks = FindPeaks[-fData, blur/deltaX, 0, -0.97];
points = Point@{xx[[#[]]], yy[[#[]]]} & /@ peaks;


Edit: It should be peaks = FindPeaks[-yy, blur/deltaX, 0, -0.97]; so we don't blur twice.

for blur = 0.01 we will have following:

ListPlot[Transpose[{xx, #}] & /@ {yy, fData},
PlotRange -> {Full, Full}, Joined -> {False, True},
Epilog -> {Red, PointSize[Large], points}]
ListPlot[Transpose[{xx, #}] & /@ {yy, fData},
PlotRange -> {{7.6, 7.7}, Full}, Joined -> {False, True},
Epilog -> {Red, PointSize[Large], points}] Zoom in on coupled peak. And for blur=0.0005; we will get additional peak. So you control your resolution.  And for completeness, since you asked for data in vicinity of peak here is code that gives you 101 points around your peak:

 peakSeries = (Transpose[{xx, #}] &@
yy)[[# - 50 ;; # + 50]] & /@ (#[] & /@ peaks);
ListPlot[{Transpose[{xx, yy}]}~Join~peakSeries, PlotRange -> Full] • Awesome! The splitting of peaks might turn out to be very useful in datasets that I don't have yet, as I expect two degenerate resonances to split a little. I figured I'd tackle that when I actually saw it, but I guess I don't have to. One question; why apply a Gaussian filter if this is already what FindPeaks does? Isn't it doing the same thing twice? Jun 12 '15 at 19:06
• Added a piece of code to show vicinity of peaks in different colors Jun 12 '15 at 19:10
• @user129412 I applied Gaussian filter so I can draw the plot of smoothed curve. It's not used in peak detection routine. Jun 12 '15 at 19:12
• Well, you do actually use it in peaks. But substituting yy there works well. Jun 12 '15 at 19:22
• @user129412 My bad again.. the sharpness is 0, blur is the same. So you really need to use it one place, should be FindPeaks[-yy, blur/deltaX, 0, -0.97]; Jun 12 '15 at 19:30

A completely manual method (requires peak separation).

Generate a signal:

interval = {7, 8};
sigma = 1/100;
peaks = RandomReal[interval, 3];

baseSignal[t_] := 1/20 Sin[100 t] + 1
noisyS[t_, sigma_] := baseSignal[t] + RandomVariate[NormalDistribution[0, sigma]]
peakFun[interval_, peaks_, x_] := -sigma/Sqrt@ Pi
Tr[PDF[NormalDistribution[#, -Subtract @@ interval/300], x] & /@ peaks]
fullFun[interval_, peaks_, sigma_, t_] := noisyS[t, sigma] + peakFun[interval, peaks, t]
signal = Table[{t, fullFun[interval, peaks, sigma, t]},
Evaluate[{t, Sequence @@ #, -Subtract @@ #/10000} &@interval]];
signalValues = signal[[All, 2]];
ListPlot[signal, AxesOrigin -> {7, 0}, MaxPlotPoints -> 5000] Now the mins:

pps = Select[signal, Abs[#[]-Mean@signalValues] > 3 StandardDeviation@signalValues &];
clus = pps[[#]] & /@ FindClusters[pps[[All, 1]] -> Range@Length@pps,
Method -> {"Agglomerate"}];
mins = First@SortBy[#, Last] & /@ clus

ListPlot[signal, AxesOrigin -> {7, 0}, MaxPlotPoints -> 5000,
Epilog -> {Red, PointSize[Large], Point@mins}] • Interesting… So you rely on FindClusters for peak separation. How do you control peak resolution? OP uses GaussianFilter (at least I think FindPeaks uses it) to set blur parameter to specify resolution. Jun 12 '15 at 18:00
• I'm still trying to understand what each part does, after which I'll get back to you. But it looks promising, as the peaks will in general be quite separated. Specifically, I'm having some trouble understanding how the definition of mins works, and why we need -> Range@Length@pps in clus. Jun 12 '15 at 18:03
• Oh, and I was also wondering, in the current way it finds the actual coordinates of the peaks. Is there an easy way to figure out which element of the original vector this is? Like, number 100, or 172, etcetera. Jun 12 '15 at 18:22
• @user129412 Position[signal,#]&/@mins Jun 12 '15 at 18:30
• @BlacKow I haven't seen your first comment. Sorry. Peak resolution is not the strongest point of this method. But the OP confirmed that it isn't a problem in his current setup. I don't have v10, so I can't test FindPeaks[ ] Jun 12 '15 at 19:26