# What's the correct method to simplify exponentials?

I have a sum of exponentials that I'd like to simplify. The issue is when I use Simplify, Mathematica loves to factor out one exponential factor. See below: $$e^{-i (d (\text{kx1}+\text{kx2})+2 \beta +\gamma +\delta +\text{\theta 1}+\text{\theta 2})} \left((e^{i (d (\text{kx1}+\text{kx2})+2 \beta )}+2 e^{i (d (\text{kx1}+\text{kx2})+2 \beta +\gamma +\delta )}+e^{i (d (\text{kx1}+\text{kx2})+2 (\beta +\gamma +\delta ))}+2 e^{i (d (\text{kx1}+\text{kx2})+2 \beta +\gamma +\delta +2 \text{\theta 1})}+e^{i (d (\text{kx1}+\text{kx2})+2 (\beta +\text{\theta 1}))}\right....))$$

Otherwise, when I try to Expand it I get $$e^{i (d (\text{kx1}+\text{kx2})+2 \beta )-i (d (\text{kx1}+\text{kx2})+2 \beta +\gamma +\delta +\text{\theta 1}+\text{\theta 2})}+2 e^{i (d (\text{kx1}+\text{kx2})+2 \beta +\gamma +\delta )-i (d (\text{kx1}+\text{kx2})+2 \beta +\gamma +\delta +\text{\theta 1}+\text{\theta 2})}+e^{i (d (\text{kx1}+\text{kx2})+2 (\beta +\gamma +\delta ))-i (d (\text{kx1}+\text{kx2})+2 \beta +\gamma +\delta +\text{\theta 1}+\text{\theta 2})}+2 e^{i (d (\text{kx1}+\text{kx2})+2 \beta +\gamma +\delta +2 \text{\theta 1})-i (d (\text{kx1}+\text{kx2})+2 \beta +\gamma +\delta +\text{\theta 1}+\text{\theta 2})}+e^{i (d (\text{kx1}+\text{kx2})+2 (\beta +\text{\theta 1}))-i (d (\text{kx1}+\text{kx2})+2 \beta +\gamma +\delta +\text{\theta 1}+\text{\theta 2})}$$

Any help on how to "simplify" correctly would be greatly appreciated. Note, Refine does nothing in my case.

• Posting executable Mathematica code for copy&paste would be helpful. – Mr.Wizard Jul 19 '12 at 20:28

Taking the expression you get when Expand is applied, Simplify and FullSimplify work nicely if one isn't going to generalize it to much.

expr =  E^( I( d(kx1 + kx2) + 2β) - I ( d(kx1 + kx2) +  2β + γ + δ + θ1 + θ2)) +
2 E^( I( d(kx1 + kx2) + 2β + γ + δ) - I( d(kx1 + kx2) +  2β + γ + δ + θ1 + θ2)) +
E^( I( d(kx1 + kx2) + 2(β + γ + δ)) - I( d(kx1 + kx2) + 2β + γ + δ + θ1 + θ2)) +
2 E^( I( d(kx1 + kx2) + 2β + γ + δ + 2θ1) - I( d(kx1 + kx2) + 2β + γ + δ + θ1 + θ2)) +
E^( I( d(kx1 + kx2) + 2(β + θ1)) - I( d(kx1 + kx2) + 2 β + γ + δ + θ1 + θ2));


We can apply Simplify :

Simplify[ expr] or FullSimplify

FullSimplify[expr] If we assume another conditions (the second argument of Simplify or FullSimplify) we can get a simpler expression, e.g. assuming θ1 == θ2 and γ + δ == 0 yields :

Simplify[ expr, θ1 == θ2 && γ + δ == 0]

3 + 4 E^(-2 I θ2)


Edit 1

Taking into account the comments beneath I could do the task in another way, since it seems you just don't like the factorizing effect of Simplify on the whole expression. Therefore we can write the expression in the List form, then simplify every term seperately and finally write the terms as a sum :

Plus @@ Simplify[ List @@ expr]

E^(I ( γ + δ - θ1 - θ2)) + 2 E^(I ( θ1 - θ2)) + E^(-I ( γ + δ - θ1 + θ2))
+ 2 E^(-I (θ1 + θ2)) + E^(-I ( γ+ δ + θ1 + θ2))


or even better map Simplify over the expression, simply :

Simplify /@ expr


since it returns the same :

Plus @@ Simplify[List @@ expr] == Simplify /@ expr

True


Edit 2

There are many ways to do things in Mathematica, here is another useful one :

expr /. Power[a_, b_] :> Power[a, Simplify[b]]


or if you want to simplify only exponentials :

expr /. E^(a_) :> E^Simplify[a]


They return the results as mapping Simplify over the expression, e.g. :

Simplify /@ expr == expr /. Power[a_, b_] :> Power[a, Simplify[b]

True

• Simplifies nicely to trig functions, if you actually type in \[ImaginaryI] instead of i. – Guillochon Jul 19 '12 at 20:49
• @Guillochon Do you mean when using ExpToTrig? – CHM Jul 19 '12 at 20:57
• @CHM FullSimplify will actually convert to trig automatically, if it can. – Guillochon Jul 19 '12 at 22:24
• @Guillochon I was asking because I get the same result when I use FullSimplify on expr/. "i" -> \[ImaginaryI]. – CHM Jul 19 '12 at 22:30
• Here's the thing. I do NOT want it to factor out one of the exponentials. Secondly, my list of exponentials is really long, so FullSimplify would take a really long time. Let me clarify that all I wanted was basically to simplify each individual exponential, if that makes sense. – lababidi Jul 24 '12 at 21:10