# Random numbers in C++ and Mathematica gives wrong results? [closed]

I have the following strange phenomenon which puzzles me!:

I have a piecewise constant probability density given as

using RandomGenType = std::mt19937_64;
RandomGenType gen(51651651651);

using PREC = long double;
std::array<PREC,5> intervals {0.59, 0.7, 0.85, 1, 1.18};
std::array<PREC,4> weights {1.36814, 1.99139, 0.29116, 0.039562};

// integral over the pdf to normalize:
PREC normalization =0;
for(unsigned int i=0;i<4;i++){
normalization += weights[i]*(intervals[i+1]-intervals[i]);
}
std::cout << std::setprecision(30) << "Normalization: " << normalization << std::endl;
// normalize all weights (such that the integral gives 1)!
for(auto & w : weights){
w /= normalization;
}

std::piecewise_constant_distribution<PREC>
distribution (intervals.begin(),intervals.end(),weights.begin());


When I draw n random numbers (radius of sphere in millimeters) from this distribution and compute the mass of the sphere and sum them up like:

unsigned int n = 1000000;
double density = 2400;
double mass = 0;

for(int i=0;i<n;i++){
auto d = 2* distribution(gen) * 1e-3;
mass += d*d*d/3.0*M_PI_2*density;
}


I get mass = 4.3283 kg (see LIVE and the c++ post)

Doing the EXACT identical thing in Mathematica like: Gives the assumably correct value of 4.5287 kg.

Which is not the same, also with different seeds , C++ and Mathematica never match! ? Is that numeric inaccuracy, which I doubt it is...? Question : What the hack is wrong with the sampling in C++?

Simple Mathematica Code:

pdf[r_] = 2*Piecewise[{{0, r < 0.59}, {1.36814, 0.59 <= r <= 0.7},
{1.99139, Inequality[0.7, Less, r, LessEqual, 0.85]},
{0.29116, Inequality[0.85, Less, r, LessEqual, 1]},
{0.039562, Inequality[1, Less, r, LessEqual, 1.18]},
{0, r > 1.18}}];

pdfr[r_] = pdf[r] / Integrate[pdf[r], {r, 0, 3}];(*normalize*)

Plot[pdf[r], {r, 0.4, 1.3}, Filling -> Axis]

PDFr = ProbabilityDistribution[pdfr[r], {r, 0, 1.18}];
(*if you put 1.18=2 then we dont get 4.52??*)

SeedRandom[100, Method -> "MersenneTwister"]
dataR = RandomVariate[PDFr, 1000000, WorkingPrecision -> MachinePrecision];
Fold[#1 + (2*#2*10^-3)^3  Pi/6 2400 &, 0, dataR]

(*Analytical Solution*)

PDFr = ProbabilityDistribution[pdfr[r], {r, 0, 3}];
1000000 Integrate[ 2400 (2 InverseCDF[PDFr, p] 10^-3)^3 Pi/6, {p, 0, 1}]


## closed as off-topic by Mr.Wizard♦Mar 10 '15 at 2:49

• The question does not concern the technical computing software Mathematica by Wolfram Research. Please see the help center to find out about the topics that can be asked here.
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• the pdf you supply to ProbabilityDistribution must be a proper probability density function in the sense that it integrates to unity over the interval. ( yours integrates to ~1/2 ) – george2079 Mar 4 '15 at 19:35
• ups jeah, sorry, should be 2 times this, (edit) – Gabriel Mar 4 '15 at 19:38
• Ok, Thanks. I see that with n=2000000 your C-code gives 8.65219 and Mathematica 9.0509. (The difference increases with n). I suppose this should not be correct, isn't it? – Dargor Mar 4 '15 at 19:58
• Isn't this more of a C++ question than a Mathematica one? – Simon Woods Mar 4 '15 at 21:29
• The c++ question is here: stackoverflow.com/questions/28862895/… – Gabriel Mar 4 '15 at 23:59

a bit of an extended comment,

Note there is no need for a delayed defintion of your pdf:

 pdf[r_] =
Simplify[2 (Piecewise[{{0, r <= 0.59}, {1.36814,
Inequality[0.59, Less, r, LessEqual, 0.7]}, {0, r > 0.7}},
Indeterminate] +
Piecewise[{{0, r <= 0.7}, {1.99139,
Inequality[0.7, Less, r, LessEqual, 0.85]}, {0, r > 0.85}},
Indeterminate] +
Piecewise[{{0., r <= 0.85}, {0.29116,
Inequality[0.85, Less, r, LessEqual, 1]}, {0., r > 1}},
Indeterminate] +
Piecewise[{{0, r <= 1}, {0.039562,
Inequality[1, Less, r, LessEqual, 1.18]}, {0, r > 1.18}},
Indeterminate])];


This integrates to nearly 1, but lets normalize it so its exact: (the factor is ~0.999998 )

 pdf[r_] =  pdf[r]/Integrate[ pdf[r], {r, .59, 1.18}] // Simplify Now you can get your result analytically: (this fails if you don't do the normalization)

 PDFr = ProbabilityDistribution[pdf[r], {r, 0.59, 1.18}];
1000000 Integrate[ 2400 ( 2 InverseCDF[PDFr, p] 10^-3)^3 Pi/6  , {p, 0, 1}]


4.52594

This is true because:

This seems fairly convincing that your mathematica monte carlo is correct and the trouble lies in the c version.

• Jeap, I tested that too! Thanks for the comment! it seems that the c++ is buggy! – Gabriel Mar 4 '15 at 20:32
• Sorry, I was mistaken, I did not test that, can you quickly give me a hint, why you integrate the inverse cdf? The term Integrate[ 2400 ( 2 InverseCDF[PDFr, p] 10^-3)^3 Pi/6 , {p, 0, 1}]is the expected mass of one sphere I assume, but why :-)? – Gabriel Mar 4 '15 at 23:15