# Rule for orderless function Times

I have problems extending a replacement rule.

Schematically, this is the situation: I have an expression and a rule, and they work perfectly together.

In =  result = expr /.rule
Out = ...


Now I want to extend the rule to let it cope with extra multiplication factors. It should be such that

In =  5 result - (5 expr /. ruleex)
Out = 0


And

In =  5 w result - (5 w expr /. ruleex)
Out = 0


These are the expression and the rule I am working with:

In:=  rule = Times[f[x__][y__], z__] -> Times[-1, q, y, f[x][z]]
In:=  expr = f[-a][s[c, -b]]*f[a][s[-c, b]]
In:=  result = expr /. rule
Out:= -s[c, -b] f[-a][f[a][s[-c, b]]]


To make the rule cope with an arbitrary number of multiplicative factors on the left, I guess adding a BlankNullSequence would do.

In:=   ruleex = Times[q___, f[x__][y__], z__] -> Times[-1, q, y, f[x][z]];
In:=   expr /.rulex
In:=   5 expr /. ruleex
In:=  5 w expr /. ruleex
Out:=  -s[c, -b] f[-a][f[a][s[-c, b]]]
Out:=  -s[c, -b] f[-a][5, f[a][s[-c, b]]]
Out:=  -s[c, -b] f[-a][5, w, f[a][s[-c, b]]]


Out is as expected. The extra factor 5 ends up not at the front of the expression, but somewhere in the in f[a][...]. In Out something similar occurs.

Why does this not work? How can I extend the rule to act in the way I described?

The reason why your rule doesn't work is that Times is orderless so that the two multiplicative factors at the beginning and end of the expression 5 expr are not considered distinct.

Your goal seems to be to treat factors that occur to the left of the product of f differently from factors occurring to the right.

This can be done symbolically, but only if you use a different symbol instead of Times to describe your non-commutative multiplication. Fortunately, there is a function pre-defined for that, it's NonCommutativeMultiply:

How to use this depends a little on the details of your problem, but the idea is that you have to start with all your expressions written in this non-commutative way:

expr = f[-a][s[c, -b]] ** f[a][s[-c, b]]


The ** replaces normal multiplication here. Now you can manipulate this using a rule of the exact form that you wanted, except for the change from Times to **:

ruleex = NonCommutativeMultiply[q___, f[x__][y__], z__] ->
NonCommutativeMultiply[-1, q, y, f[x][z]];


This yields the following:

5 expr /. ruleex

(* ==> 5 (-1) ** s[c, -b] ** f[-a][f[a][s[-c, b]]] *)


So the output looks more complicated now, but it has the advantage that you can then work on it further under the assumption of non-commutativity. E.g., you can apply the rule repeatedly using //..

But if you're done with the replacements that depend on the order of factors and want to have a result that has only Times, you can end by doing this:

5 expr /. ruleex /. NonCommutativeMultiply -> Times

(* ==> -5 s[c, -b] f[-a][f[a][s[-c, b]]] *)


Everything Jens wrote is valid, but perhaps you merely want to restrict your z pattern a bit.

Consider:

ruleex = Times[q___, f[x__][y__], z : f[__][___] ..] :> Times[-1, q, y, f[x][z]];

expr = f[-a][s[c, -b]]*f[a][s[-c, b]];

5 w expr /. ruleex

-5 w s[c, -b] f[-a][f[a][s[-c, b]]]