Classify apparently preprocesses your input data, for example (same example from Classify reference page, but using NeuralNetwork as the method):

Othello = Import["http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/2267/pg2267.txt"];
Hamlet = Import["http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/2265/pg2265.txt"];
Macbeth = Import["http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/2264/pg2264.txt"];
TheImportanceOfBeingEarnest = Import["http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/844/pg844.txt"];
ThePictureofDorianGray = Import["http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/174/pg174.txt"];
AnIdealHusband = Import["http://www.gutenberg.org/files/885/885-0.txt"];
LesMiserables = Import["http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/135/pg135.txt"];
NotreDamedeParis = Import["http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/2610/pg2610.txt"];
TheManWhoLaughs = Import["http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/12587/pg12587.txt"];

author = Classify[
           <|"William Shakespeare" -> {Othello, Hamlet},
             "Oscar Wilde" -> {TheImportanceOfBeingEarnest, ThePictureofDorianGray},
             "Victor Hugo" -> {LesMiserables, NotreDamedeParis}|>,
           Method -> {"NeuralNetwork"}];

Now, by executing Options[author], we get more information about the trained Neural Network:

{<|"Common"-><|"Pattern"->_String,"Preprocessors"-><|"Input"->"ToLowerCase" -> "WordTokenize" -> "TokensToTFIDFVector" -> "ReduceDimension","Output"->"IntegerEncodeList"|>,"Decision"-><|"Prior"-><|"Oscar Wilde"->0.3333333333333333`,"Victor Hugo"->0.3333333333333333`,"William Shakespeare"->0.3333333333333333`|>...

I'm wondering if there's any way we can see what the preprocessed data is (for example: see what the TFIDF vector or IntegerEncodeList look like).

  • $\begingroup$ Does FullForm[author] help? $\endgroup$ Commented Dec 2, 2014 at 21:57
  • $\begingroup$ That is a great suggestion. FullForm gave me a bit more information. The interesting here is with a Markov classifier, FullForm was able to give me lists of words and values while neural network method gave me a list of hashes (it says type is Murmur3-64) so I'm assuming it's for some sort of lookup array but unfortunately it could not give me the list of words itself. Great suggestion, nevertheless! $\endgroup$
    – nqduy
    Commented Dec 3, 2014 at 2:37
  • $\begingroup$ No worries. I'd used FullForm a few times out of curiosity to see what was being stored ...but it is not my field so unsure how useful the information is to a "skilled practitioner" $\endgroup$ Commented Dec 3, 2014 at 22:34

1 Answer 1


The PrintDefinitions function may be helpful in understanding the internal working of the processors.

It seems that the internal structure of data is in the form of MLDataset, and the processors can be applied directly to the MLDataset.

Here is an example:

We first extract the options, which contains the detail of the model

opts = First@Options[author];

The preprocessor and processor of the input can be obtained by

inputPrepro = opts["Input"]["Preprocessor"]
inputPro = opts["Input"]["Processor"]

Now we can apply these processors to the inputs, and get an MLDataset object

processedInput = inputPro@inputPrepro@Keys[data]
(* MachineLearning`MLDataset[<|"f1" -> <|"Type" -> "Text", 
    "Weight" -> 1, 
    "Values" -> {"william shakespeare", "oscar wilde", "victor hugo"},
     "ID" -> 5544833639454981494|>|>, <|"RawExample" -> False, 
  "ExampleNumber" -> 3, "ExampleWeights" -> 1|>] *)

Then we can apply the processor in the model to this MLDataset object

modelPro = First[opts["Models"]]["Processor"];
(* {{2.71499}, {2.7148}, {2.71468}} *)

If you want to look into the individual processor in the modelPro, you can apply the individual processors sequentially

{pro1, pro2, pro3, pro4} = modelPro[[2]]["Processors"];

(* {{2.71499}, {2.7148}, {2.71468}} *)

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