# How to generate a chirped signal

As there is no ChirpSignal function in Mathematica, can anyone tell me how to write a custom function to generate a sinusoid with a frequency that changes continuously from frequency f1 to f2 over a certain time of t?

This is what I done to generate the chirp:

{freq0, freqs, TrBandw, RCbandw, pulseLength, dt} =
{9 10^6, {10 10^6, 20 10^6}, 4, 10^6, 5 10^5, 2.67 10^-6, 1 10^-8};

i = 0;
nfreqs = Length@freqs;
n = Ceiling[pulseLength/dt];

fmin = freqs[] - RCbandw/2;
fmax = freqs[[-1]] + RCbandw/2;

nextend = n*nfreqs;
w = 2 Pi (fmin + Range[0, nextend - 1] (fmax - fmin)/(nextend - 1));

Phi =
Accumulate[Insert[Table[w[[i]] dt, {i, 2, n*nfreqs}], 0, 1]],
IntegerPart[((nfreqs + 1) pulseLength)/dt],
0];

s = Sin[Phi]; At the end, I need to filter the chirp with a Butterworth (or any other filter) to remove frequencies that do not fit in the span of [cutoff1, cutoff2]

cut1 = (freq0 - 0.5 TrBandw)/(1/dt/2)
cut2 = (freq0 + 0.5 TrBandw)/(1/dt/2)

cut1 = 0.14 Hz
cut2 = 0.22 Hz


The final result looks something like this in matlab Most part of my problem lies in the filtering. So, instead of my code for the chirp, I can use the simpler approach suggested. Still, it would be great to have help with the filtering part, too.

• How should the frequency change over that time? Linearly? – Mr.Wizard Oct 20 '14 at 19:30
• This seems rather well addressed here: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chirp -- have you tried to implement this yourself? Where did you run into trouble? – Mr.Wizard Oct 20 '14 at 19:38
• Have you looked at BandpassFilter? – Rahul Oct 21 '14 at 9:54
• Yes, I tried to filter the chirp with BandpassFilter command, however the amplitude of the output signal doesn't exceed +/- 0.04. – kvnF2 Oct 21 '14 at 11:05

If you're trying to just generate a chirp over all time, you can use:

Clear[Chirp, fc, f1, tau]
Chirp[t_, fc_, f1_, tau_] := Cos[2*Pi*(fc*t + (f1 - fc)/tau*t^2)]
Plot[Chirp[t, 100, 150, 0.25], {t, 0, 0.25}] Basically, this is: $$\mathcal{Re}\left\{e^{i2\pi f_ct+i2\pi\beta t^2}\right\}$$ Where $\beta$ is the rate of change in frequency (in Hz/sec). To solve for $\beta$, we just rewrite it as the change in frequency ($f_c-f_1$) over the chirp time ($\tau$). This is how the above Mathematica code is derived. If you're trying to detect a chirp, such as using correlation, you could redefine the chirp function as a piecewise function, so as to make it 0 outside of the chirp time:

Clear[Chirp, fc, f1, tau]
Chirp[t_, fc_, f1_, tau_] := Piecewise[{{Cos[2*Pi*(fc*t + (f1 - fc)/tau*t^2)], 0 <= t <= tau}}, 0]
Plot[Chirp[t, 100, 150, 0.25], {t, -0.25, 0.35}] Personally, I usually put the chirp in terms of $\beta$, which would make the above function

Chirp[t_, fc_, beta_, tau_] := Piecewise[{{Cos[2*Pi*(fc*t + beta*t^2)], 0 <= t <= tau}}, 0]


And if I need the Quadrature component (Which would be $\mathcal{Im}\left\{e^{i2\pi f_ct+i2\pi\beta t^2}\right\}$)

Chirp[t_, fc_, beta_, tau_] := Piecewise[{{Sin[2*Pi*(fc*t + beta*t^2)], 0 <= t <= tau}}, 0]

• Welcome to Mathematica SE! Nice detailed explanation :) – ybeltukov Oct 20 '14 at 20:07

Here is a start until more detail is specified:

Plot[Sin[t*t], {t, 0, 10}] Clear[PulseTemplateChirp];
PulseTemplateChirp[freq0_, freqs_, TrBandw_, RCbandw_, pulseLength_,
dt_] :=
Block[{fmin, fmax, chirpLength0, nfreqs,
chirpLength, \[Phi],(*chirp0,*)cut1, cut2, tf, dtf, chirp1, cut01,
cut02, bwf, dbwf, chirpn, z},

fmin = freqs[] - RCbandw/2;
fmax = freqs[[-1]] + RCbandw/2;

chirpLength0 = Round[pulseLength/dt] + 1;
nfreqs = Length@freqs;
chirpLength = nfreqs chirpLength0;

Accumulate[
Insert[
Table[
2 \[Pi] (fmin + (fmax - fmin)/chirpLength t) dt, {t, 2,
chirpLength}]
, 0, 1]
],
IntegerPart[((nfreqs + 1) pulseLength)/dt], 0];

chirp0 = Sin[\[Phi]];

cut1 = (freq0 - 0.5 TrBandw)/0.5;
cut2 = (freq0 + 0.5 TrBandw)/0.5;

(*This creates a Butterworth filter with a 5 dB passband at
cut1<f<cut2 and -50 dB stopbands at f<(0.8cut1) and f>(2cut2)*)
tf = ButterworthFilterModel[{"Bandpass",
2 \[Pi] {0.8 cut1, cut1, cut2, 2 cut2}, {50., 5.}}];
(*Convert to discrete-time IIR filter*)
dtf = ToDiscreteTimeModel[tf, 0.5 dt, z];
(*Filter chirp sequence*)
chirp1 = RecurrenceFilter[dtf, chirp0];

chirpn =
Reap[
Do[
cut01 = (freqs[[i]] - 0.5 RCbandw)/0.5;
cut02 = (freqs[[i]] + 0.5 RCbandw)/0.5;

bwf =
ButterworthFilterModel[{"Bandpass",
2 \[Pi] {0.9 cut01, cut01, cut02, 2 cut02}, {15., 2.}}];
dbwf = ToDiscreteTimeModel[bwf, 0.5 dt, z];

Sow[RecurrenceFilter[dbwf, chirp1]],

{i, nfreqs}]
][[2, 1]]
]

chirps = PulseTemplateChirp[9 10^6, {10 10^6, 12 10^6}, 4 10^6,5 10^5, 2.67 10^-6, 1 10^-8];

ListLinePlot[chirps[]] 