Torn edge paper effect for images

In my answers to Plotting Error Bars on a Log Scale I used a so called "torn edge" effect from on one of the images. @SjoerdC.deVries commented: "BTW I liked the ripped-out look of your InputForm picture; Mathematica? It's ideal for pictures that have to convey the message "There's more of this, but that's not important". Though it was a software called Snagit, I think Mathematica can easily do it. For example, this train of thought:

Imagine you have an image which you'd like to limit with torn edge:

a = Image[Rasterize[RandomReal[1, 50], RasterSize -> 700]] Generate random walk:

b = ListLinePlot[SeedRandom; Accumulate[RandomReal[{-1, 1}, 2000]],
Axes -> False, Filling -> Bottom, FillingStyle -> White,
AspectRatio -> 1/13,  PlotStyle -> {Thickness[0.0015], GrayLevel[.0],
Opacity[.5]}, PlotRangePadding -> {0, 5, 0, 5}, ImageSize -> 1000] c = ListLinePlot[SeedRandom; Accumulate[RandomReal[{-1, 1}, 2000]],
Axes -> False, Filling -> Bottom, FillingStyle -> White,
AspectRatio -> 1/13, PlotStyle -> {Thickness[0.005], Opacity[.3],
GrayLevel[.2]}, PlotRangePadding -> {0, 5, 0, 5}, ImageSize -> 1000] And compose everything:

d = ImageCompose[b, c, {Left, Bottom}, {Left, 5}];
e = ImageCompose[a, d, {Left, Bottom}, {Left, Bottom}];
ImageCompose[e, ImageRotate[d, Pi/2], {Right, Bottom}, {Right, Bottom}] This kind of works - but is obviously very raw. Right bottom corner is problematic for example. So can we make it work? Some perhaps good things to think of:

• Single function where we feed image and pointers which edges to torn.
• All image sizes would work
• All methods are good, no need to use random walks

This question maybe helpful: How can I make a 2D line plot with a drop shadow under the line?

A bit lengthy, but here's my attempt. The parameters in torn are the base image img and an array describing which edges should be torn. This array is of the form {{left, right}, {bottom, top}}, where a 0 corresponds to a straight edge and any non-zero value to a torn edge, so {{0, 0}, {1, 0}} would correspond to an image where only the bottom edge is torn.

Options[torn] = {"amplitude" -> .04, "frequency" -> 50, "offset" -> {10, 10},
"opacity" -> .7, "gaussianBlur" -> 4};

torn[img_, {{l_, r_}, {b_, t_}}, OptionsPattern[]] :=
Module[{ratio, left, right, bottom, top, poly, img1, shadow, amp, dx, offset},
ratio = #2/#1 & @@ ImageDimensions[img];
amp = OptionValue["amplitude"] {Min[1/ratio, 1], Min[ratio, 1]};
dx = 1/(OptionValue["frequency"] {Min[1/ratio, 1], Min[ratio, 1]});
offset = Abs[{##}] UnitStep[{#1 {-1, 1}, #2 {1, -1}}] & @@ OptionValue["offset"];

left = If[l == 0, {{0, 1}, {0, 0}},
Table[{RandomReal[{0, 1} amp[]], i}, {i, 1 - amp[], dx[], -dx[]}]];
right = If[r == 0, {{1, 0}, {1, 1}},
Table[{1 + RandomReal[{-1, 0} amp[]], i}, {i, dx[], 1 - amp[], dx[]}]];
bottom = If[b == 0, {{0, 0}, {1, 0}},
Table[{i, RandomReal[{0, 1} amp[]]}, {i, dx[], 1 - amp[], dx[]}]];
top = If[t == 0, {{1, 1}, {0, 1}},
Table[{i, 1 + RandomReal[{-1, 0} amp[]]}, {i, 1 - amp[], dx[], -dx[]}]];
poly = Join[left, bottom, right, top];

Image@Graphics[#, ImagePadding -> OptionValue["gaussianBlur"],
PlotRangePadding -> None, AspectRatio -> ratio, Background -> None,
ImageSize -> ImageDimensions[img] + 2 OptionValue["gaussianBlur"]] & /@
{{Texture[img], EdgeForm[Black], Polygon[poly, VertexTextureCoordinates -> poly]},
{Polygon[poly]}};
img1 = ImagePad[img1, offset, {1, 1, 1, 0}];
Reverse /@ offset, {1, 1, 1, 0}];
ImageCompose[img1, {shadow, OptionValue["opacity"]}, Center, Center, {1, 1, -1}]]

There are a number of options which control various image parameters. These are the amplitude of the tears "amplitude", the frequency of the jags, "frequency", the opacity of the shadow, "opacity", and the blurriness of the shadow "gaussianBlur". The offset of the shadow towards the lower right corner is controlled by the option "offset" which is off the form {right, bottom} where right and bottom are in points. Negative values for right and bottom indicate a shadow pointing towards the left and/or top of the image.

Example

img = ExampleData[{"TestImage", "Mandrill"}];
torn[img, {{0, 1}, {1, 0}}, "offset" -> {20, 20}, "gaussianBlur" -> 10] Edit

Apparently, under certain circumstances Mathematica doesn't render a transparent background for img1 which results in a white region between the image and the shadow. I managed to reproduce this behaviour in version 8.0.1 for OS X with img = Image@Plot[Sin[x], {x, 0, 2 Pi}], but not in 8.0.4. It seems that setting the ImageSize in Graphics is the culprit. To resolve this issue I replaced {img1, shadow} = Image@Graphics... in torn with

Rasterize[
Graphics[#, ImagePadding -> OptionValue["gaussianBlur"],
PlotRangePadding -> None, AspectRatio -> ratio,
Background -> None],
ImageSize -> ImageDimensions[img] + 2 OptionValue["gaussianBlur"],
Background -> None] & /@
{{Texture[img], EdgeForm[Black], Polygon[poly, VertexTextureCoordinates -> poly]},
{Polygon[poly]}};
• Wow, very neat implementation - love the look of it :) – Vitaliy Kaurov Apr 11 '12 at 21:05
• I found I had to add in an extra Image[...] to make it work in general: img1 = ImagePad[Image[Graphics[..., Background->None], ... – wxffles Apr 11 '12 at 23:48
• Wow o_o this is amazing :) – Eiyrioü von Kauyf Apr 13 '12 at 1:43
• @wxffles It's a lovely effect, as you mentioned it didn't quite work for me out of the box and I couldn't quite figure out where to make your adaption in the code? – image_doctor Apr 13 '12 at 10:39
• @image_doctor Which version are you using? I couldn't reproduce this behaviour in 8.0.4 for OS X, only in version 8.0.1. I've posted a solution which solves the issue in my version at least. – Heike Apr 13 '12 at 12:49

With the release of M11.2 I finally can add an answer via a built-in function. Let's get the test image:

i = ExampleData[{"TestImage", "Mandrill"}];

Now it becomes as easy as this:

torn = ImageEffect[i, {"TornFrame", Scaled[1/15], {Right, Bottom}, .05}] Note there is no shadow to dramatize the effect. It can be achieved by various methods, for instance (we are making this mask slightly larger than original image):

Blur[ColorNegate[Binarize[ColorQuantize[torn, 1]]], 20],
Scaled[1.02]] ImageCompose[shadow, torn, {Left, Top}, {Left, Top}] I still like @Heike answer very much ;-)

• Heike's result is much more irregular. Does Scale play on the irregularity of the cut? (I don't have v11.2 to try) Thanks for the update anyway. – anderstood Sep 15 '17 at 0:34
• @anderstood Please look at my answer where I show how to reproduce Heike's result with v.11.2 ImageEffect. – Alexey Popkov Sep 15 '17 at 7:12
• @AlexeyPopkov this is wonderful, thank you! – Vitaliy Kaurov Sep 20 '17 at 14:41

Update

Here is a non-hackish way to reproduce the Heike's style of torn edges using ImageEffect of version 10.2 with even higher irregularity (irregular steps):

i = ExampleData[{"TestImage", "Mandrill"}];

t = Module[{step = 10, if, n = 2 Total[ImageDimensions[i]], k = 0},
if = Interpolation[
Transpose[{Accumulate[Prepend[RandomInteger[{step, 2 step}, n], 0]],
RandomReal[1, n + 1]}], InterpolationOrder -> 1];
ImageEffect[i, {"Frame", if[++k] &, 15, {Right, Bottom}}]] An extension of the answer by Vitaliy. We can reproduce the Heike's style of torn edges with ImageEffect of version 10.2 by Blocking the Accumulate function:

i = ExampleData[{"TestImage", "Mandrill"}];

t = Block[{Accumulate = RandomReal[1, Length[#]] &},
ImageEffect[i, {"TornFrame", Scaled[1/15], {Right, Bottom}, .08}]] (the hack is found by tracing the evaluation of ImageEffect).

Here is how to add a semi-transparent shadow:

offset = 10;
blur = 5;
ImageCompose[SetAlphaChannel[ColorNegate@#, #] &@Blur[
ImageMultiply[ImagePad[AlphaChannel[t], {{offset, blur/2}, {blur/2, offset}}],
ImagePad[t, {{0, offset + blur/2}, {offset + blur/2, 0}}]] Sometimes it is desirable to highlight the boundary:

boundaryLigntness = .4;
ImageCompose[
SetAlphaChannel[ColorNegate@#, #] &@Blur[
ImageMultiply[ImagePad[AlphaChannel[t], {{offset, blur/2}, {blur/2, offset}}], 