# Using FindSequenceFunction to solve the integral of the product of Legendre polynomials and power functions

The integral of the product of Legendre polynomials and power functions:

$$I=\int_{-1}^1 x^n \mathrm{P}_l(x) \mathrm{d} x$$

The calculation result from the textbook is:

\begin{aligned} I & =0 \end{aligned} (n

\begin{aligned} I & =\frac{n !}{(n+l+1) ! !(n-l) ! !}\left[1+(-1)^{n-l}\right] \end{aligned} (n>=l)

Firstly, direct integration is unsuccessful:

Clear["Global*"];

Integrate[x^n*LegendreP[l, x], {x, -1, 1},  Assumptions -> Element[{l, n}, PositiveIntegers]]


(* Failed *)

The result couldn't be obtained using FindSequenceFunction. Is it because the pattern is too complex or there are errors in the code?

Clear["Global*"];

int[n_Integer, l_Integer] := int[n, l] = Integrate[x^n*LegendreP[l, x], {x, -1, 1}]

Table[int[n, l], {n, 1, 7}, {l, 1, 8}] // TableForm[#, TableHeadings -> {"n" Range[1, 7], "l" Range[1, 8]}] &


Then,

Table[{l, FindSequenceFunction[Table[{n, int[n, l]}, {n, l, l + 20}], n]}, {l, 1, 10}]


(* {a long table} *)

FindSequenceFunction[%, l]


(* Failed *)

Ref:

https://mathematica.stackexchange.com/a/297745/69835

Is there a multidimensional FindSequenceFunction for multi-parameter pattern discovery?

$Version (* "14.0.0 for Mac OS X ARM (64-bit) (December 13, 2023)" *) Clear["Global*"] int[n_Integer?Positive, l_Integer?Positive] := int[n, l] = Integrate[x^n*LegendreP[l, x], {x, -1, 1}] Table[int[n, l], {n, 1, 7}, {l, 1, 8}] // TableForm[#, TableHeadings -> { StringForm["n=", #] & /@ Range[7], StringForm["l=", #] & /@ Range[8]}] &  (tab1 = Table[{l, FindSequenceFunction[Table[{n, int[n, l]}, {n, l, l + 20}], n]}, {l, 1, 20}] // FullSimplify)[[1 ;; 4]]  Convert tab1 to Piecewise expressions (tab2 = Simplify[{#[[1]], Piecewise[{ {Simplify[#[[2]], Mod[n, 2] == 0], Mod[n, 2] == 0}, {Simplify[#[[2]], Mod[n, 2] == 1], Mod[n, 2] == 1}}]} & /@ tab1])[[1 ;; 4]]  Handle the even and odd values of l separately. int2[n_Integer?Positive, l_Integer?Positive] = Evaluate@Piecewise[{{Assuming[Mod[n, 2] == 1 && Mod[l, 2] == 1, FindSequenceFunction[tab2[[1 ;; ;; 2]] // FullSimplify, l] // FullSimplify], Mod[n, 2] == 1 && Mod[l, 2] == 1}, {Assuming[Mod[n, 2] == 0 && Mod[l, 2] == 0, FindSequenceFunction[tab2[[2 ;; ;; 2]] // FullSimplify, l] // FullSimplify], Mod[n, 2] == 0 && Mod[l, 2] == 0}}]  Verifying that int2 is equivalent to int And @@ (Flatten@Table[int[n, l] == int2[n, l], {n, 1, 30}, {l, 1, 30}]) (* True *)  Not using FindSequenceFunction: $$P_l(x)=\sum _{j=0}^{\infty } \sum _{k=0}^{\infty } \frac{2^{-j-k} (-x)^j (-l)_{j+k} (1+l)_{j+k}}{j! k! (j+k)!}$$ $Version
(*"14.0.0 for Microsoft Windows (64-bit) (December 13, 2023)"*)

Int = Integrate[(2^(-j - k) (-x)^j Pochhammer[-l, j + k] Pochhammer[1 + l, j + k])/(j! k! (j + k)!)*x^n, {x, -1, 1}][[1]]
S = Sum[Int, {j, 0, Infinity}, {k, 0, Infinity}]
F = FullSimplify[S, Assumptions -> {n \[Element] Integers && l \[Element] Integers}]// FunctionExpand

(* (2 (-1 + (-1)^n) Sqrt[\[Pi]]
HypergeometricPFQ[{1/2 - l/2, 1 + l/2, 1 + n/2}, {3/2, 2 + n/2},
1])/((2 + n) Gamma[
1/2 + l/2] Gamma[-(l/2)]) + ((1 + (-1)^n) Sqrt[\[Pi]]
HypergeometricPFQ[{1/2 + l/2, -(l/2), 1/2 + n/2}, {1/2, 3/2 + n/2},
1])/((1 + n) Gamma[1/2 - l/2] Gamma[1 + l/2]) *)

Table[{Integrate[LegendreP[l, x] x^n, {x, -1, 1}], F,(n!)/(Factorial2[n + l + 1]*Factorial2[n - l])*(1 + (-1)^(n - l))}, {n, 1, 10}, {l,
1, 10}] // MatrixForm (*OK*)
`

$$\int_{-1}^1 P_l(x) x^n \, dx=\frac{2 \left(-1+(-1)^n\right) \sqrt{\pi } \, _3F_2\left(\frac{1}{2}-\frac{l}{2},1+\frac{l}{2},1+\frac{n}{2};\frac{3}{2},2+\frac{n}{2};1\right)}{(2+n) \Gamma \left(\frac{1}{2}+\frac{l}{2}\right) \Gamma \left(-\frac{l}{2}\right)}+\frac{\left(1+(-1)^n\right) \sqrt{\pi } \, _3F_2\left(\frac{1}{2}+\frac{l}{2},-\frac{l}{2},\frac{1}{2}+\frac{n}{2};\frac{1}{2},\frac{3}{2}+\frac{n}{2};1\right)}{(1+n) \Gamma \left(\frac{1}{2}-\frac{l}{2}\right) \Gamma \left(1+\frac{l}{2}\right)}$$