Let $F_n$ denote the $n$-th Fibonacci number. I am interested in the sequence $$a(k, n)=\left | \left \{0 \leq m \leq n: \frac{F_m}{k} \; \text{is a perfect square} \right \} \right |,$$ where $|\cdot|$ denotes the cardinality of a set.

For example, $a(1, 100) = 4$ since there are only four perfect squares among the first $n=100$ Fibonnaci numbers: $F_0=0$, $F_1=1$, $F_2=1$ and $F_{12}=144$.

How can I write a code to calculate $a(k, n)$?

  • $\begingroup$ What is perfect square? $\endgroup$
    – cvgmt
    Jun 24, 2023 at 11:17
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ @cvgmt, I think this is a common synonym for a square number. $\endgroup$
    – Domen
    Jun 24, 2023 at 11:45
  • $\begingroup$ @Domen I know Perfect triangle numbers etc. but I do not know Perfect square. $\endgroup$
    – cvgmt
    Jun 25, 2023 at 0:14

1 Answer 1


You did not give an example. Is this what you want?

Using Michael E2 code to check for perfect square from Fastest square number test

a[k_Integer,n_Integer?Positive]:=Table[f=Fibonacci[m]/k; If[sQ[f],m,Nothing],{m,0,n}];

Mathematica graphics

  • $\begingroup$ I am sorry for the misunderstanding. The horizontal brackets denote cardinality. $\endgroup$
    – user227351
    Jun 24, 2023 at 10:17
  • $\begingroup$ $a(n,k)$ is essentially the number of integers $m$ less than $n$ such that $F_m/k$ is a perfect square. $\endgroup$
    – user227351
    Jun 24, 2023 at 10:17
  • $\begingroup$ @user227351 Ok, if all what you want is the number of integers $m$ that satisfy this, then simply it will be the length of the result. No? Will update. $\endgroup$
    – Nasser
    Jun 24, 2023 at 10:23
  • $\begingroup$ I am not that competent, but SquareFreeQ ask "Is $n$ square free?" not "Is $n$ not a square?". $\endgroup$
    – user227351
    Jun 24, 2023 at 10:25
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ @user227351 could you check if this is now what you meant? Found a test for perfect square. So in this example, the length is 3. $\endgroup$
    – Nasser
    Jun 24, 2023 at 10:41

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