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I want to plot a graph that represents the distance of a moving point on a line and the center of a circle, I want to plot the graph on the right (the red dotted graph)

screenshot of an explanatory image: enter image description here

thanks in advance :)

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4 Answers 4

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DynamicModule[{pointOnLine, list},
 Manipulate[
  Row[{
   LocatorPane[
    Dynamic@{endA, endB, center},
    Graphics[{
      Circle[center, radius],
      {Dashed, Line[{endA, endB}]},
      PointSize[0.02], Point[pointOnLine],
      {Red, Line[{center, pointOnLine}]}
     },
     PlotRange -> 10,
     Axes -> False, Frame -> True, ImageSize -> Medium
    ]
   ],
   ListPlot[
    list,
    PlotStyle -> Red, AspectRatio -> 1,
    Axes -> False, Frame -> True, ImageSize -> Medium
   ]
  }],
  {{center, {3, 1}}, None},
  {{endA, {-5, 5}}, None},
  {{endB, {0, -5}}, None},
  {{radius, 2}, 1, 8},
  {{positionAlongLine, 0.3}, 0, 1, Appearance -> "Open",
   TrackingFunction -> ((
     positionAlongLine = #;
     pointOnLine = endB + positionAlongLine (endA - endB);
     AppendTo[list, {#, EuclideanDistance[center, pointOnLine]}]
    )&)
  },
  Button["Discard plot points and restart", list = {}],
  Initialization :> (
    list = {}; 
    pointOnLine = endB + positionAlongLine (endA - endB)
  )
 ]
]

a running animation of the distances being collected and plotted

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4
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Manipulate[
 Row[{Graphics[{
     Red,
     Circle[{x0, y0}, r]
     , Dashed, Black
     , Line[{{x1, y1}, {x2, y2}}]
     , Line[{{x0, y0}, (1 - t) {x1, y1} + t {x2, y2}}]
     , Red, AbsolutePointSize[6]
     , Point[(1 - t) {x1, y1} + t {x2, y2}]
     , Blue, Point[{x1, y1}]
     , Point[{x2, y2}]
     , Darker@Green
     , Point[{x0, y0}]
     }
    , Frame -> True
    , ImageSize -> 200
    , PlotRange -> {{-5, 5}, {-5, 5}}
    , GridLinesStyle -> {{Gray, Dotted}, {Gray, Dotted}}
    , GridLines -> Automatic
    ],
   , g = RegionDistance[
      Point[{x0, y0}], (1 - t) {x1, y1} + t {x2, y2}];
   , Plot[ EuclideanDistance[(1 - x) {x1, y1} + x {x2, y2}, {x0, y0}]
    , {x, 0, 1}
    , PlotRange -> {{0, 1}, {0, 6}}
    , ImageSize -> 200
    , PlotLabel -> Style[g, Black, 12]
    , GridLinesStyle -> {{Gray, Dotted}, {Gray, Dotted}}
    , GridLines -> Automatic
    , Epilog -> {Red, AbsolutePointSize[6]
      , Point@{t, g} 
      , Dashed, Black
      , Line[{{t, g}, {t, 0}}]
      }
    ]
   }]
 ,
 {{x0, 0}, -1, 1}
 , {{y0, 0}, -1, 1}
 , {{r, 2}, 0, 4}
 , {{x1, 3}, -4, 4}
 , {{y1, 3}, -4, 4}
 , {{x2, -4}, -4, 4}
 , {{y2, -1}, -4, 4}
 , {{t, 0.5}, 0, 1}
 , TrackedSymbols :> All
 ]

enter image description here

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3
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EuclideanDistance gives the distance between two points. One way to specify a point on your line is

(1-t){a1,b1} + t {a2,b2}

which moves between the two endpoints as t goes from 0 to 1. The distance to the center of the circle is

EuclideanDistance[(1-t){a1,b1} + t {a2,b2}, {x0,y0}]

Giving numerical values to the endpoints and center, you can then plot this distance to get the distance plot. For example, with endpoints {0,3} and {1,0} and circle center at {3,2} gives

enter image description here

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0
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My goodness... all this code can be eliminated if you recall Pythagoras' Theorem: $d = \sqrt{h^2 + s^2}$ where $h$ is the distance from the circle's center to the nearest point on the line (call it $P$) and $s$ is the distance of the point in question from $P$.

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