I have a group:

group = PermutationGroup[{Cycles[{{1, 3, 6}, {2, 4}}], Cycles[{{6, 7}}]}];

And I have s subgroup

subgroup = PermutationGroup[{Cycles[{{6,7}}],Cycles[{{2,4}}],Cycles[{{1,7}}]}];

We can check it:

ResourceFunction["SubgroupQ"][subgroup, group]


So how to find all left cosets(or just the representative element in all left cosets) about subgroup in group?


2 Answers 2


Since two left cosets $g\cdot H$ and $h \cdot H$ satisfies $g\cdot H= h \cdot H$ is equavalent to $ h^{-1}\cdot g\in H$,we set it as the equivalence relationships and use Gather.

   GroupElementQ[subgroup, PermutationProduct[InversePermutation[#1], #2]] &]

There are 4 cosets.

enter image description here


First edit

Since $b\in aH$, if and only if $aH=bH$:

Union[Sort[#, Less] &/@ Table[Table[
    PermutationProduct[e, i], {i, GroupElements[subgroup]}], {e, 

enter image description here

The representative elements are respectively:

First /@ %


Ugly, but work.

Second edit (The efficiency version)

leftcosets[{}, r_] := r
leftcosets[remaineles_, r_ : {}] := 
 Module[{representative = First[remaineles], coset}, 
    coset = Table[PermutationProduct[representative, i], {i, 
       GroupElements[subgroup]}]], Append[r, coset]]]

It very quick. I'll use a larger group as an example:

group = PermutationGroup[{Cycles[{{1, 2, 7, 10, 5, 8}, {3, 4}, {6, 
       9}}], Cycles[{{1, 6}, {2, 4, 8, 7, 10, 9}, {3, 5}}]}];
subgroup = GroupStabilizer[group, {3}];

Performance comparsion

 result1 = Gather[GroupElements[group], 
      PermutationProduct[InversePermutation[#], #2]] &];]

{17.0175, Null} ← cvgmt's method

AbsoluteTiming[result2 = leftcosets[GroupElements[group]];]

{0.133693, Null} ← my method

Equal to inspection

SortBy[Sort /@ result1, First] === SortBy[Sort /@ result2, First]


Third edit (just get the representative element of left cosets)




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