# How to obtain a normalized fourier transform?

In my code I solved a differential equation system, then I made a fourier transform of the solution in differents times, this is my code

Clear["Global*"]

dt = 4;

Nmax = 64; (*Number of sites*)

tini = 0; (*initial time*)

tmax = 80; (*maximal time*)

n0 = Nmax/2;(*initial condition*)

\[Psi]ini = Sqrt[2/Nmax] Table[Sin[\[Pi] (n0 n)/Nmax], {n, 1, Nmax}];

Z = Table[
1. (KroneckerDelta[i - j + 1] + KroneckerDelta[i - j - 1]), {i, 1,
Nmax}, {j, 1, Nmax}];

Clear[\[Psi]]

usol = NDSolveValue[{I D[\[Psi][t], t] ==
Z.\[Psi][t], \[Psi] == \[Psi]ini}, \[Psi], {t, tini, tmax}];

tt = Range[tini, tmax, dt];

FF = Table[FourierDST[usol[i], 1], {i, tini, tmax, dt}];

Table[ListLinePlot[Abs[FF[[i]]]^2, PlotRange -> All,
PlotLabel -> tt[[i]], PlotTheme -> "Scientific"], {i,
Length[tt]}] // Chop


this is the result that I´m expected, a pick in n0 in all the times but I don´t know why the amplitude of pick is not 1. And if I change n0 like n0=1 or n0=64 the amplitude of pick is equal to 1. Do I have a problem with normalization? I expected that for all n0 the amplitude of pick is equal to 1

In fact, I made the manual fourier transform

Ur = Table[usol[t], {t, tini, tmax, dt}];

S = Sqrt[2/Nmax]
Table[Sin[\[Pi]/(Nmax + 1) r n], {r, 1, Nmax}, {n, 1, Nmax}];

Table[ListLinePlot[(Re[S.Ur[[i]]]^2 + Im[S.Ur[[i]]]^2),
PlotRange -> All, PlotLabel -> tt[[i]],
PlotTheme -> "Scientific"], {i, Length[tt]}] // Chop


but the result is the same.

• Mathematica's Fourier convention is not by default unitary. Luckily, FourierDSTaccepts a second parameter, m which is used for DST and DCT, rather than the FourierParameters option. Both m=1 and m=4 are their own inverses, meaning they must be unitary. Which you want depends on your application, but I think it's m=1. Jun 7 at 7:41
• In the line "FF" I used FourierDST with m=1, I know that I´m using the correct form of fourier transform but I don´t why when I change n0 the pick is not equal to 1 Jun 7 at 15:35

First consider that your "peak" has a certain width:

ListLinePlot[tf = (Abs[FF[]]^2)[[30 ;; 35]], PlotRange -> All,
PlotLabel -> tt[], PlotTheme -> "Scientific"] This is because you have a finite sequence. Therefore, what matters is the area, not the height.

Further, the absolute values are not important, they are a conventions, but the relative values matter. But what really matters is that the inverse gives back the original data. In your case, you are implicitly using convention: 2, then convention: 3 gives the inverse:

test = usol // Chop;
test1 = FourierDST[test, 2] // Chop;
test2 = FourierDST[test1, 3] // Chop;
test2 == test

(* True*)
`