Bug introduced in 12.1 and fixed in 12.3

Consider the following simple example for demonstration:


Is there anything wrong with my syntax? Is it a bug?

  • $\begingroup$ Did you try using NProbability[] instead? $\endgroup$ Feb 18, 2021 at 11:21
  • $\begingroup$ @J.M. Yes, NProbability is also not working. I think WRI forgot to implement conditional probability for CategoricalDistribution. Should I add the tag bug on it? $\endgroup$
    – user13892
    Feb 18, 2021 at 17:30
  • $\begingroup$ That definitely sounds reportable to Support. $\endgroup$ Feb 18, 2021 at 17:31
  • $\begingroup$ @J.M. have you updated to 12.3? Can you check if it is working in 12.3? $\endgroup$
    – user13892
    Jun 27, 2021 at 6:07
  • 3
    $\begingroup$ I can access 12.3 in the cloud, and it seems both Probability[] and NProbability[] can handle it now. $\endgroup$ Jun 27, 2021 at 6:13

2 Answers 2


I think your syntax is just fine. Probability just doesn't know how to do it.

The brute force way, of course, is the following:

cd = CategoricalDistribution[{{"Rain", "Fair"}, {"Win", "Lose"}}, {{0.4, 0.4}, {0.12, 0.08}}];
Probability[result == "Win" && weather == "Fair", {weather, result} \[Distributed] cd]/
  Probability[weather == "Fair", {weather, result} \[Distributed] cd]
(* 0.6 *)
  • $\begingroup$ Have you updated to 12.3? Can you check if it is working in 12.3? Have they added the definitions of conditional probability in Probability and NProbability? $\endgroup$
    – user13892
    Jun 27, 2021 at 6:09
cd = CategoricalDistribution[{{"Rain", "Fair"}, {"Win", "Lose"}}, 
  {{0.4, 0.4}, {0.12, 0.08}}];

Update: Again using simple queries we can get two tables of conditional probabilities as Dataset objects

probtable = Information[cd, "ProbabilityTable"];

condProbResultGivenWeather = probtable[All, Normalize[#, Total] &];

condProbWeatherGivenResult = probtable[Transpose][All, Normalize[#, Total] &];

Row[{condProbResultGivenWeather, condProbWeatherGivenResult}, Spacer[10]] 

enter image description here

condProbResultGivenWeather["Fair", "Win"] 
condProbResultGivenWeather[All, "Win"] 

enter image description here


enter image description here

condProbWeatherGivenResult["Win", "Fair"]
condProbWeatherGivenResult[All, "Fair"]

enter image description here


enter image description here

Information + "ProbabilityTable"

Using Information we get the joint probability table as a Dataset object. We then can get the conditional probabilities using simple queries:

probtable = Information[cd, "ProbabilityTable"]

enter image description here

Conditional probability of "Win" given "Fair":

probtable["Fair", #Win / Total @ # &]

Conditional probability of "Fair" given "Win":

probtable[#Fair / Total @ # &, "Win"]

PDF + MarginalDistribution

We can also use the functions PDF and MarginalDistribution to get the same result:

PDF[cd, {"Fair", "Win"}] / PDF[MarginalDistribution[cd, 1], "Fair"] 
 PDF[cd, {"Fair", "Win"}] / PDF[MarginalDistribution[cd, 2], "Win"]     

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