I'm trying to numerically solve the following equation


for which -1 $\le$ x $\le$ 1, -1 $\le$ y $\le$ 1, 0 $\le$ t $\le$ 1 with initial condition u(0,x,y)=sin(πxy) and u(t,x,y)=sin(πxy) and D=0.1 and $\vec{v}$ is {y,-x}. I've tried doing the following

eqn2 = Inactive[0.1*Laplacian[u[t, x, y], {t, x, y}] - {y, -x}*Gradient[u[t,x,y],{t, x, y}]]
pdesol = DSolve[{eqn2, u[0, x, y] == Sin[\[Pi] x y], u[t, x, y] == Sin[Pi x y]}, u[t, x, y], {x, -1, 1}, {y, -1, 1}, {t, 0, 1}]

But an error occurs. I have also tried to use NDSolve, but I get the same error, which is, "equation or list of equations expected instead of...". How could I fix this?

  • 2
    $\begingroup$ This question is similar to the one I answered here. $\endgroup$
    – Tim Laska
    Jan 11, 2021 at 20:30

2 Answers 2


As I alluded to in the comments, I described a complete description of setting up a well-formed PDE system for a transient convection-diffusion problem in my answer here 237643.

The workflow for rectangular domain using the HeatTransferPDEComponent is shown in the following:

vars = {u[t, x, y], t, {x, y}};
pars = <|"ThermalConductivity" -> 0.1, 
   "HeatConvectionVelocity" -> {y, -x}|>;
eqn2 = HeatTransferPDEComponent[vars, pars] == 0
dctemp = HeatTemperatureCondition[True, vars, 
  pars, <|"SurfaceTemperature" -> Sin[Pi*x*y]|>]
ic = u[0, x, y] == Sin[Pi*x*y];
Ω = Rectangle[{-1, -1}, {1, 1}];
ufun = NDSolveValue[{eqn2, ic, dctemp}, 
   u, {t, 0, 1}, {x, y} ∈ Ω];
ContourPlot[ufun[0.5, x, y], {x, y} ∈ Ω, 
 ColorFunction -> "TemperatureMap"]



A similar but lower level approach to what Tim suggested is to use DiffisionPDETerm and ConvectionPDETerm

vars = {u[t, x, y], t, {x, y}};
eqn2 = D[u[t, x, y], t] + DiffusionPDETerm[vars, 0.1] + 
    ConvectionPDETerm[vars, {y, -x}] == 0;

Boundary conditions are then:

bc = DirichletCondition[u[t, x, y] == Sin[Pi*x*y], True]

The rest is then the same:

ic = u[0, x, y] == Sin[Pi*x*y];
\[CapitalOmega] = Rectangle[{-1, -1}, {1, 1}];
ufun = NDSolveValue[{eqn2, ic, bc}, 
   u, {t, 0, 1}, {x, y} \[Element] \[CapitalOmega]];
ContourPlot[ufun[0.5, x, y], {x, y} \[Element] \[CapitalOmega], 
 ColorFunction -> "TemperatureMap"]*)

As a side note, you can Activate the PDE as follows:


which is a prerequisite to use DSolve


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