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For example, take the implicit equation for the unit circle

$\qquad x^2 + y^2 = 1$.

Is there a function Parameterize[x^2 + y^2 == 1] that would return a vector valued function

$\qquad v(t) = \{\cos(t),\,\sin(t)\}$

I've come across ParametricNDSolve, but can't seem to figure out how it works.

I may be asking the wrong question, please let me know if you think that's the case.

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This is usually a tough problem to solve symbolically. The following function doesn't check whether system was solve, nor does it remove singular solutions.

ClearAll[parametrize];
(* Polar parametrization centered at basepoint *)
parametrize[eqn_, v : {x_, y_}, t_, basepoint : {_, _}] :=      
  parametrize[eqn, v, t, 
   Function[{param, elim}, basepoint + elim*{Cos[param], Sin[param]}]];
(* Default: polar parametrization centered at origin as in OP *)
parametrize[eqn_, v : {x_, y_}, t_, 
   paramform_ : Function[{param, elim}, elim*{Cos[param], Sin[param]}]
   ] :=
  Module[{r},
   Simplify@Solve[
     Eliminate[Flatten@{eqn, v == paramform[t, r]}, r],
     {x, y}
     ]
   ];

Examples:

parametrize[x^2 + y^2 == 1, {x, y}, t]
(*  {{x -> -Cos[t], y -> -Sin[t]}, {x -> Cos[t], y -> Sin[t]}}  *)
parametrize[x^2 + y^2 == 1, {x, y}, t, {1, 0}]
(*  {{x -> 1, y -> 0}, {x -> -Cos[2 t], y -> -2 Cos[t] Sin[t]}}  *)
(* The "Pythagorean Triples" parametrization *)
parametrize[x^2 + y^2 == 1, {x, y}, m, 
 Function[{m, x}, {x, m*(x + 1)}]]
(*  {{x -> -1, y -> 0}, {x -> (1 - m^2)/(1 + m^2), y -> (2 m)/(1 + m^2)}}  *)
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    $\begingroup$ See here how Maple does it. $\endgroup$ – user64494 Oct 4 '20 at 17:10
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    $\begingroup$ @user64494 The generic Maple approach is similar to my last example, an algebraic (rational) parameterization of the pencil of lines through a point on the curve. The approach tends to produce a parametrization that misses a point (which is the limit as the parameter approaches infinity). The form OP desired was different, and I made a parametrization based on a polar angle the default. I added the optional paramform to show the algebraic approach. $\endgroup$ – Michael E2 Oct 5 '20 at 14:15
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Here's a numerical complement to my other answer. Just integrate orthogonally to the gradient. The code below produces a parameterization by arc length. It should fail (stop integration) if it reaches a singular point. NDSolve does not allow the domain of integration to be infinite on both sides, that is, {t, -Infinity, Infinity}. If you want to start in the middle and integrate both ways, alter {t, 0, Infinity} in nParametrize accordingly.

ClearAll[nParametrize];
ClearAll[periodify];
periodify[list_List] := ReplacePart[list, -1 -> First@list];

ClearAll[closeIF];
closeIF[ifn_InterpolatingFunction] := Interpolation[Transpose@{
     ifn["Grid"],
     periodify@ifn["ValuesOnGrid"], 
     periodify@Derivative[1][ifn]["ValuesOnGrid"]}, 
   PeriodicInterpolation -> True];
nParametrize[eqn_, v : {x_, y_}, basepoint : {x0_, y0_}, 
   tol_ : 0.001] :=
  Module[{vel, t, periodicQ = False},
   vel = Simplify[
     ComplexExpand@Normalize@Cross@D[eqn /. Equal -> Subtract, {v}],
     eqn];
   With[{res = NDSolve[
       {{x'[t], y'[t]} == (vel /. u : x | y :> u[t]),
        x[0] == x0, y[0] == y0,
        WhenEvent[
         x[t] == x0 && 
          Abs[y[t] - y0] < (tol + Sqrt@$MachineEpsilon*Abs[y0]),
         periodicQ = True; "StopIntegration"],
        WhenEvent[
         y[t] == y0 && 
          Abs[x[t] - x0] < (tol + Sqrt@$MachineEpsilon*Abs[x0]),
         periodicQ = True; "StopIntegration"]},
       v, {t, 0, Infinity}]},
    res /. if_InterpolatingFunction /; periodicQ :> closeIF[if]
    ]
   ];

Example:

psol = nParametrize[x^2 + y^2 == 1, {x, y}, {1, 0}]

In this case, nParametrize constructs a periodic solution, so in effect the domain is all real numbers (up to machine float limitations).

ParametricPlot[{x[t], y[t]} /. psol // Evaluate, {t, 10, 14}]
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