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I need to find the integral $M(r)$ of a second derivative of equation $f(r)$ where this equation has only a numerical solution sol = NDSolve[f[r],...].

M[r]=Integrate[the second derivative of f(r),{r,0,10}]
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Because lack of example code I show the principal way to solve the problem:

Create NDSolve solution f[r]

f = NDSolveValue[{F'[r] + F[r] == 0, F[0] == 1}, F, {r, 0, 10}]

Integrate NDSolve result f''[r]

NIntegrate[f''[r], {r, 0, 10}]
(*0.999955*)    

That's it!

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Let's say the original call has a form something like the following:

sol = NDSolve[f[r], u, {r, 0, 10}] (* OP says f[r] is an 'equation' but does
                                      not indicate the dependent variable 
                                      or boundary conditions              *)

By the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, the answer should be given by

u'[10] - u'[0] /. sol

This will return the value(s) for the integral, one for each solution returned by NDSolve. (A nonlinear f[r] may have more than one solution.)

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