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When I run the following identical numerical integrals

NIntegrate[
  Exp[2 I s] Exp[2 I t] ((Cos[s] - Cos[t])^2 + (Sin[s] - Sin[t])^2) + 
   1, {s, 0, 2 \[Pi]}, {t, 0, 2 \[Pi]}] // Timing
NIntegrate[
  Exp[2 I s] Exp[2 I t] (2 - 2 Cos[s - t]) + 1, {s, 0, 2 \[Pi]}, {t, 
   0, 2 \[Pi]}] // Timing

I find the first takes around 14 seconds while the second only takes a fraction of a second. Can anyone explain why there is such a difference and how to improve the timing of the first integral because I'm going to be doing a lot of similar integrals of the first kind without being able to simplify the integrand to look more like the second? Thanks in advance for any help.

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The first NIntegrate spends some time doing symbolic pre-processing of the integrand. You can turn that off and the integrals complete in about the same time:

NIntegrate[
  Exp[2 I s] Exp[2 I t] ((Cos[s] - Cos[t])^2 + (Sin[s] - Sin[t])^2) + 1, {s, 0, 2 π}, {t, 0, 2 π}, 
  Method -> {Automatic, "SymbolicProcessing" -> 0}] // Timing
(* result: {0.203125, 39.4784 - 5.6413*10^-9 I} *)

NIntegrate[
  Exp[2 I s] Exp[2 I t] (2 - 2 Cos[s - t]) + 1, {s, 0, 2 π}, {t, 0, 2 π}, 
  Method -> {Automatic, "SymbolicProcessing" -> 0}] // Timing
(* result: {0.203125, 39.4784 + 2.07215*10^-8 I} *)

You may notice the slightly different numerical error in the imaginary part.

| improve this answer | |
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  • $\begingroup$ That's brilliant, thanks very much! $\endgroup$ – Chris Jul 24 at 11:31
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The symbolic processing misses the obvious way to compute these integrals, namely, Method -> "Trapezoidal", about 100 times faster than "SymbolicProcessing" -> 0:

NIntegrate[
  Exp[2 I s] Exp[2 I t] ((Cos[s] - Cos[t])^2 + (Sin[s] - Sin[t])^2) + 1,
  {s, 0, 2 π}, {t, 0, 2 π}, 
  Method -> "Trapezoidal"] // RepeatedTiming
NIntegrate[
  Exp[2 I s] Exp[2 I t] (2 - 2 Cos[s - t]) + 1,
  {s, 0, 2 π}, {t, 0, 2 π},
  Method -> "Trapezoidal"] // RepeatedTiming
(*
  {0.0020, 39.4784 - 8.88178*10^-16 I}
  {0.0021, 39.4784 - 1.11022*10^-16 I}
*)

For purposes of comparison:

NIntegrate[
  Exp[2 I s] Exp[2 I t] ((Cos[s] - Cos[t])^2 + (Sin[s] - Sin[t])^2) + 1,
  {s, 0, 2 π}, {t, 0, 2 π}] // AbsoluteTiming
NIntegrate[
  Exp[2 I s] Exp[2 I t] (2 - 2 Cos[s - t]) + 1,
  {s, 0, 2 π}, {t, 0, 2 π}] // AbsoluteTiming
(*
  {13.3983, 39.4784 - 1.07495*10^-13 I}
  {0.366373, 39.4784 - 1.20667*10^-15 I}
*)

Reference

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