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I am a student of M.Phil Mathematics. I am working on a non linear system of difference equations in three dimensions. I want to draw a phase portrait for my system using Mathematica. I was trying different codes for drawing a good phase portrait but nothing to do well. so I need help from you to solve this problem. your answer would be appreciated. If anyone of you have a Mathematica code for system of three nonlinear difference equations please share with me. My system for which I want to draw Phase Portrait:

x[n+1] = ((αx[n]-βx[n]y[n]-γx[n]z[n])/(1+δx[n]))
y[n+1] = ((ζy[n]+ηx[n]y[n]-μy[n]z[n])/(1+εy[n]))   
z[n+1] = ((υz[n]+ρx[n]z[n]-σy[n]z[n])/(1+ωz[n]))

Where parameters α,β,γ,δ,ε,ζ,η,μ,ρ,σ,υ,ω ∈R⁺, and initial conditions x₀,y₀ and z₀ are positive real numbers.

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    $\begingroup$ do you have specific values for the parameters and initial conditions? it is always best to provide so one does not have to guess. $\endgroup$ – Nasser May 18 '20 at 0:50
  • $\begingroup$ yes sir. but i think you give me a complete code to draw it. it will be very helpful for me. there are different conditions on parameters which i will try it by your given mathematica code. if i have any problem in this section i will again comment here. Again a bundle of thanks with lot of prayers. $\endgroup$ – Muhammad Shoaib May 19 '20 at 4:43
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Since you did not provide numerical values, I made some up.

Basically, what you could do is run RecurrenceTable on the 3 equations starting from some initial conditions, then use Graphics3D to plot the trajectory.

ClearAll["Global`*"];
α = 1;
β = 2;
γ = 3;
δ = 4;
ζ = 5;
η = 6;
μ = 7;
ε = 8;
υ = 9;
ρ = 10;
σ = 11;
ω = 12;

eq1 = x[n + 1] == ((α x[n] - β x[n] y[n] - γ x[n] z[n])/(1 + δ x[n]));
eq2 = y[n + 1] == ((ζ y[n] + η x[n] y[n] - μ y[n] z[n])/(1 + ε y[n]));
eq3 = z[n + 1] == ((υ z[n] + ρ x[n] z[n] - σ y[n] z[n])/(1 + ω z[n]));

(*make sure in this below, to add decimal point to one of the
  initial conditions numbers, which is 3.0 in this example. This
  way computation is done in machine numbers which is much faster
  otherwise it will take long time *)

tbl = RecurrenceTable[{eq1, eq2, eq3, x[0] == 1, y[0] == 2, 
               z[0] == 3.}, {x, y, z}, {n, 1, 100}];

Graphics3D[Line[tbl], Axes -> True, AxesLabel -> {"x", "y", "z"}, 
 BaseStyle -> 12]

Mathematica graphics

The above gives one trajectory, starting from the initial conditions given. For different IC, you get different trajectory.

I have not seen a StreamPlot like function in Mathematica for discrete systems.


To answer comment

i want to draw these trajectotries in three different coloures. how can i change commands for mathematica to draw it in differnt three colours. like red for 'x' blue for 'y' and green for 'z'

The 3D trajectory is the "solution" itself. At each step, there is one single point. This point is in 3D space, so each point has 3 components. The table is just a list of all these points.

To draw x,y,z on each own, then we can use 1D plot, and plot x(n) vs. n and same for y and z. One possible way is below. The variable tbl used is the same one generated in the above code. So just pick the correct entry of each coordinate. First is x, second is y, and third is z.

p1 = ListLinePlot[tbl[[All, 1]], PlotStyle -> Red, BaseStyle -> 12, 
          PlotLabel -> "X component", AxesLabel -> {"n", "x[n]"}];

p2 = ListLinePlot[tbl[[All, 2]], PlotStyle -> Blue, BaseStyle -> 12, 
       PlotLabel -> "Y component", AxesLabel -> {"n", "y[n]"}];

p3 = ListLinePlot[tbl[[All, 3]], PlotStyle -> Black, BaseStyle -> 12, 
        PlotLabel -> "Z component", AxesLabel -> {"n", "z[n]"}];

Grid[{{p1, p2, p3}}, Spacings -> {1, 1}]

Mathematica graphics

To put them all on top of each others:

 Show[{p1, p2, p3}, PlotLabel -> "X,Y,Z solutions"]

Mathematica graphics


To answer comment

can i draw scatter plot of this system

I am not too sure what this should be in this context. May be this is what is needed?

tbl = RecurrenceTable[{eq1, eq2, eq3, x[0] == 1, y[0] == 2, 
    z[0] == 3.}, {x, y, z}, {n, 1, 500}];
ListPointPlot3D[tbl, PlotStyle -> {Red,PointSize[0.01]}]

Mathematica graphics

You could also use same Graphics3D command above and change Line to Point

Graphics3D[Point[tbl], Axes -> True, AxesLabel -> {"x", "y", "z"}, 
 BaseStyle -> 12]

Mathematica graphics

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  • $\begingroup$ Thanks a lot sir. you solve my problem. may ALLAH bless you more. $\endgroup$ – Muhammad Shoaib May 19 '20 at 4:33
  • $\begingroup$ @NASEER. sir if i want to draw these trajectotries in three different coloures. how can i change commands for mathematica to draw it in differnt three colours. like red for 'x' blue for 'y' and green for 'z'. $\endgroup$ – Muhammad Shoaib May 19 '20 at 4:59
  • $\begingroup$ @MuhammadShoaib Please see updated answer. $\endgroup$ – Nasser May 19 '20 at 5:41
  • $\begingroup$ @NASEER. Thanks sir. Well done sir. a last question is in my mind and i want to ask. can i draw scatter plot of this system? if draw please share the code. $\endgroup$ – Muhammad Shoaib May 19 '20 at 6:14
  • $\begingroup$ @MuhammadShoaib I am not exactly sure what you mean here by scatter plot. If you mean point plot, then I updated the answer. If this is not what you want, may be you can post a link to an image of what it is supposed to be. $\endgroup$ – Nasser May 19 '20 at 6:37

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