# FindRoot::lstol error

I'm getting the message:

FindRoot::lstol: The line search decreased the step size to within tolerance specified by AccuracyGoal and PrecisionGoal but was unable to find a sufficient decrease in the merit function. You may need more than MachinePrecision digits of working precision to meet these tolerances.

I am also getting results and the plot that I get is acceptable, but I want to know: does the problem described in the message influence the results? Or can I continue?

 e1=1; e2=-1; e3=3.0625; e4=-1; e5=1; lam=632.8*10^-9; c=3*10^8; w=2*3.14*c/lam; m1=1; m2=-1; m3=1; m4=-1; m5=1; d2=60*10^-9; d4=60*10^-9; f=0.5; j=2;
k0=w/c;
m = 0;
Wi = 150 ;                 Wf = 500;      Wstep = 10;

nf = (Wf - Wi)/Wstep + 1

q3 = Sqrt[(k0^2*e3*m3) - B^2];
q1 = Sqrt[B^2 - (k0^2*e1*m1)];
q2 = Sqrt[B^2 - (k0^2*e2*m2)];
q4 = Sqrt[B^2 - (k0^2*e4*m4)];
q5 = Sqrt[B^2 - (k0^2*e5*m5)];
wValues = Table[i, {i, Wi, Wf, Wstep}];
R1 = (1 - (((q1*m2*k0)/(q2*m1))*f))*Exp[-q2*d2];
R2 = (1 + (((q1*m2*k0)/(q2*m1))*f))*Exp[q2*d2];
R3 = (1 - (((q4*m5)/(q5*m4*k0))*j))*Exp[-q4*d4];
R4 = (1 + (((q4*m5)/(q5*m4*k0))*j))*Exp[q4*d4];
R = q3*wValues*10^(-9);
X = ((q2*m3)/(q3*m2))*((R2 - R1)/(R1 + R2));
Y = ((q4*m3)/(q3*m4))*((R3 + R4)/(R4 - R3));
disp = R - ArcTan[X] - ArcTan[Y] - m*Pi;

n = Table[j, {j, 1, nf, 1}];
BValues =
Table[FindRoot[disp[[n]], {B, 1.5578*10^7},
MaxIterations -> 10^5], {n, 1, nf, 1}]
BValues = Re[B /. BValues]
Nvalues = BValues/k0


I tried changing the starting value, but the error still appears. The values that I get from programme are complex. Is it necessary for the starting value that I choose be complex?

• I doubt that anybody can answer without seeing your code. – m_goldberg Apr 23 at 15:19
• (A) Yes, the result is acceptable: FindRoot[Evaluate@Expand[Times @@ (x - Range@20)], {x, 10}]. (B) No, the result is wrong: FindRoot[(x - Sqrt[2.])^2 + 1., {x, 2}]. -- Your description of the plot makes it sound as if (A) is more likely than (B), but the constant 1. in (B) can be made as small as 1.*10^-7. Can't say for sure whether your case is OK without the code. – Michael E2 Apr 23 at 15:23
• i added the code , can you please see it – Aya Apr 23 at 15:30
• Yes , Yes just i forget ti write it here , i will edit it but i wrote it on Mathematica – Aya Apr 23 at 16:13
• The line dispn[B_] = disp[[n]]; throws an error but seems to be unused. Please reduce the code to a minimal working example. Also check whether Length[disp] and nf match: something seems off. – Michael E2 Apr 23 at 16:38

This computation fails, because there are no solutions for the parameters chosen. An additional complication is the branch cuts that occupy much of the real axis. Both can be demonstrated by plotting a typical disp expression (with B renormalized by k0 for convenience).

ComplexPlot3D[disp[[nf/2]], {B, -4 - I, 4 + I}] Incidentally, the renormalization is accomplished by redefining q1 as

q1 = k0 Sqrt[B^2 - (e1*m1)];


and similarly for {q2, q3, q4, q5}. For future reference, applying Simplify to disp simplifies these expressions considerably, especially if 3.14 is replaced by the exact expression Pi in the definition of w.

An alternative way to display the disp functions is to plot them in the region between the two branch points that occur at 1 and 7/4.

Plot[disp, {B, 1, 7/4}] For none of the nf expressions does a zero occur in the region. However, changing some of the parameters may yield solutions. For instance, with m = 2, the curves decrease in value by 2 Pi, and those for n >= 18 cross the axis.

Table[{n, FindRoot[disp[[n]], {B, 1.5578*10^7/k0}] // Values}, {n, 18, nf}]

(* {{18, {1.00403}}, {19, {1.08856}}, {20, {1.15744}}, {21, {1.21482}},
{22, {1.26341}}, {23, {1.30511}}, {24, {1.34127}}, {25, {1.3729}},
{26, {1.40079}}, {27, {1.42552}}, {28, {1.4476}}, {29, {1.46739}},
{30, {1.48523}}, {31, {1.50137}}, {32, {1.51603}}, {33, {1.52939}},
{34, {1.54161}}, {35, {1.55281}}, {36, {1.5631}}} *)


Varying other parameters also may yield solutions (and also may move the branch points).

At the request of the OP, here is the entire code.

e1 = 1; e2 = -1; e3 = 3.0625; e4 = -1; e5 = 1; lam = 632.8*10^-9;
c = 3*10^8; w = 2*Pi*c/lam; m1 = 1; m2 = -1; m3 = 1; m4 = -1; m5 = 1; d2 = 60*10^-9;
d4 = 60*10^-9; f = 1/2; j = 2; k0 = w/c; m = 2; Wi = 150; Wf = 500; Wstep = 10;

nf = (Wf - Wi)/Wstep + 1

q3 = k0 Sqrt[(e3*m3) - B^2];
q1 = k0 Sqrt[B^2 - (e1*m1)];
q2 = k0 Sqrt[B^2 - (e2*m2)];
q4 = k0 Sqrt[B^2 - (e4*m4)];
q5 = k0 Sqrt[B^2 - (e5*m5)];
wValues = Table[i, {i, Wi, Wf, Wstep}];
R1 = (1 - (((q1*m2*k0)/(q2*m1))*f))*Exp[-q2*d2];
R2 = (1 + (((q1*m2*k0)/(q2*m1))*f))*Exp[q2*d2];
R3 = (1 - (((q4*m5)/(q5*m4*k0))*j))*Exp[-q4*d4];
R4 = (1 + (((q4*m5)/(q5*m4*k0))*j))*Exp[q4*d4];
R = q3*wValues*10^(-9);
X = ((q2*m3)/(q3*m2))*((R2 - R1)/(R1 + R2));
Y = ((q4*m3)/(q3*m4))*((R3 + R4)/(R4 - R3));
disp = Simplify[R - ArcTan[X] - ArcTan[Y] - m*Pi];

Table[{n, FindRoot[disp[[n]], {B, 1.5578*10^7/k0}] // Values}, {n, 18, nf}]

• Sorry, but i can not fully understand you , for the solutions of the choosen parametere B when i run the programe i got solutions ,,, and i could not fully understand how can i get rid of the problem , you mean i must just redefine q1,q2,q3,q4,q5 ?? – Aya Apr 27 at 17:32
• @Aya Although you obtained solutions, they are not correct, because FindRoot failed to converge. Insert one of these spurious solutions into disp, and you will not get zero. Moreover, I do not believe you can get rid of the problem except by changing your equations. Also, redefining q1, etc as I did merely renormalizes B, it does not solve the problem. – bbgodfrey Apr 27 at 20:03
• What do you mean by changing my equation ,? – Aya Apr 28 at 11:12
• @Aya It appears that the parameters in your question need to be changed to obtain solutions. For instance, try m = 2. – bbgodfrey Apr 28 at 13:35
• i tried to do as you told me but the problem still as it is and i did not get the result that you wrote ... Many thanks – Aya May 4 at 10:40