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Consider a Mathematica function that produces some number of identical, but separate shapes; like CantorMesh[2, 2], for example.

Is there a simple way to "replace" each of the identical shapes in the produced object with another compatible geometric region/shape, like circles?

This question is inspired by the nice Wolfram-provided example of replacing every line in a Hilbert curve with a spline:

Graphics[{Thickness[Large], HilbertCurve[4] /. Line -> BSplineCurve}]
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ClearAll[replacePolygons]
replacePolygons[msh_, shp_, s_: .5] := Module[{sc = -Subtract @@@ RegionBounds[msh], 
     mp = MeshPrimitives[msh, 2]}, 
  Graphics[mp /. p_Polygon :> Translate[Scale[shp, -s (Subtract @@@ RegionBounds[p])/sc], 
     RegionCentroid[p]]]]

Examples:

shape1 = Disk[];
shape2 = Polygon[CirclePoints[7]];

Using first the example in OP:

cmesh = CantorMesh[2, 2];

Row[Show[#, ImageSize -> Small] & /@ 
  Flatten[{cmesh, replacePolygons[cmesh, #] & /@ {shape1, shape2}}], Spacer[15]]

enter image description here

smesh = SierpinskiMesh[3];

Row[Show[#, ImageSize -> Small] & /@ 
  Flatten[{smesh, replacePolygons[smesh, #] & /@ {shape1, shape2}}], Spacer[15]]

enter image description here

SeedRandom[1]
pts = RandomReal[1, {12, 2}];
vmesh = VoronoiMesh[pts];

Row[Show[#, ImageSize -> Small] & /@ 
  Flatten[{vmesh, replacePolygons[vmesh, #] & /@ {shape1, shape2}}], Spacer[15]]

enter image description here

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It really depends on what kind of substitutions you want to do. For something as simple as replacing a square with a disk, something like the following can be done:

polys = MeshPrimitives[CantorMesh[2, 2], 2];

{Graphics[polys], 
 Graphics[polys /. Polygon[pts_] :>
          Disk[Mean[pts], Apply[EuclideanDistance, Take[pts, 2]]/2]]} // GraphicsRow

2D Cantor mesh, square and disk

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