I was messing around with some integrals and I got as output the following:

Integral What does the superscript on the last term in that expression mean? I looked at the documentation for HypergeometricPFQ, but it did not contain any such superscripts. That hypergeometric function numerically evaluates to $\approx-0.5386594533$.

  • $\begingroup$ I think this question about derivatives being shown as superscripts has been asked a number of times already... $\endgroup$ Nov 17, 2019 at 11:49

1 Answer 1


My first guess when I see parenthesized exponents is that this represents a derivative of a multivariate expression. To check this guess I try


and look at what that shows me. That confirms there is a Derivative wrapped around your HypergeometricPFQ

If I use NIntegrate instead of Integrate to get an approximate result instead of an exactly precise result then it approximates all that and gives about 0.40978 for your integral and doesn't include any derivatives in the result.

  • $\begingroup$ Thank you, that seems to be the case. $\endgroup$ Sep 29, 2019 at 18:17

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