# Checking NDEigensystem Results

I'm looking to verify the output of a call to NDEigensystem. I'm doing this by plotting the operator acting on the Interpolating Function outputs versus the eigenvalue times the interpolating eigenfunctions. Something is going wrong, as it seems to me that by the properties of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, the plots should line up.

Here's my code:

ClearAll
b:= 1
c:= 1

h[x_] := -b x + c Cos[2x] / 2

Lh[l_, x_] := (D[l[z],z,z] -(1/4)(D[h[z],z])^2l[z]) /. z :> x

{vals, funs} = NDEigensystem[{-Lh[l,x], l == l[Pi]}, l[x], {x, 0, Pi}, 5]

For[i=1, i<6, i++, f[x_] := funs[[i]]; v := vals[[i]];
P1 =  Plot[-Lh[f,x], {x,0, Pi}, PlotStyle -> Red ];
P2 = Plot[v f[x], {x,0,Pi}, Axes->False];
Print[Overlay[{P1, P2}]]]


And my ouput is:     For $$L$$ a differential operator on $$L^2(S^1)$$ with eigenfunction $$u$$ and eigenvector $$\lambda$$, we should have $$Lu(x) = \lambda u(x)\, \forall x \in S^1$$. However, according to the plots, this seems to not be the case.

Where is my error? Thanks!

I think something is not quite right with way you process the equations. If you use this you get what you expect:

b = 1;
c = 1;
h[x_] = -b x + c Cos[2 x]/2;
Lh[l_, x_] := D[l[x], x, x] - (1/4) (D[h[x], x])^2 l[x]
{vals, funs} =
NDEigensystem[{-Lh[l, x], l == l[Pi]}, l, {x, 0, Pi}, 6,
Method -> {"PDEDiscretization" -> {"FiniteElement", {"MeshOptions" \
-> {"MaxCellMeasure" -> 0.001}}}}];
Do[Print[Plot[
Evaluate[-Lh[funs[[i]], x] - vals[[i]]*funs[[i]][x]], {x,
0, \[Pi]}]], {i, 6}] If you need a better resolution, then you'd need to refine the mesh. One other point that is important: With your approach, you are also testing the ability to find higher order derivatives of interpolating functions. That in it self is prone to numerical issues. So you are testing two things.

For NDEigensystem[], only homogeneous boundary conditions can be set. In this case, we have

b = 1;
c = 1;

h[x_] := -b x + c Cos[2 x]/2

eq = -(D[l[z], z, z] - (1/4) (D[h[z], z])^2 l[z]);

{vals, funs} =
NDEigensystem[{eq, DirichletCondition[l[z] == 0, z == 0 || z == Pi]},
l[z], {z, 0, Pi}, 5]

Table[Plot[{eq /. l[z] -> funs[[i]], vals[[i]] funs[[i]]}, {z, 0,
Pi}], {i, 1, 5}] • In the Scope, 1D section of the documentation for ndeigensystem, mathematica gives examples of ndeigensystem using periodic boundary conditions. How can ndeigensystem only use homogeneous boundary conditions if the documentation displays otherwise? reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/NDEigensystem.html – Misha Sep 26 at 1:48
• You see how unsuccessfully you applied the periodic boundary conditions. A few more similar examples of unsuccessful application of periodic boundary conditions can be indicated (on this forum). Note that homogeneous boundary conditions are also periodic. – Alex Trounev Sep 26 at 8:18