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Background: I'm trying to derive the relation between two variables in an optical system. The derivation is simple and well-known in the limiting case ($H \to \infty$, see figure), but rather tricky in the general case of finite $H$.

The physical situation is this: A shiny cone of fixed base radius $r$ and fixed height $h$ sits on a horizontal plane. A light ray (green) from directly above the apex of the cone a fixed height $H$ from the plane sends a light ray toward a point on the plane a variable distance $s$ from the cone's axis ($s < r$). The ray strikes the cone, obeys the law of reflection ($\theta = \theta$, measured with respect to the perpendicular line or normal to the plane, ${\bf n}$ in the figure); the ray then strikes the plane an unknown distant $R$ from the axis.

Clearly when $s \to r$, then $R \to r$. When $s$ becomes small, then $R$ becomes large.

Although not labeled in the figure, I let $\beta$ be the angle between the vertical red axis and the green light ray, as measured at the top of the figure. I let $\alpha$ be the full apex angle of the cone. I let the height of the intersection point of the green light ray and the cone be $h0$ (where $h0 < h$) and its radial distance be $k$ (where $k < r)$.

I am seeking the function $R(s)$, that is, the relation between the radial "target" position within the cone to that of the ray's final position on the plane outside the cone.

enter image description here

Question: Here are the relevant equations:

  • $\tan \beta = s/H$
  • $\tan \beta = k/(H-h0)$
  • $\tan (\alpha/2) = r/h$
  • $\tan (\alpha - \beta) = (R-k)/h0$

I would like to derive the function R[s] using Solve.

If I put in a single above equation, I can get an (incomplete) solution:

Solve[{
  Tan[\[Alpha] - \[Beta]] == (R - k)/h0}, R ]

(* {{R -> k + h0 Tan[[Alpha] - [Beta]]}} *)

But as I put in even one more equation, I do not get a solution (only an empty {}).

Here is what I thought would work:

Assuming[h0 < h && s < r,
 Solve[{Tan[\[Beta]] == s/H,
   Tan[\[Beta]] == k/(H - h0),
   Tan[\[Alpha]/2] == r/h,
   Tan[\[Alpha] - \[Beta]] == (R - k)/h0}, R ]]

This is not a physics question, but instead a Mathematica question: What syntax, what constraints, what methods will solve to give R as a function of s?

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    $\begingroup$ Solve[{Tan[β] == s/H, Tan[β] == k/(H - h0), Tan[α/2] == r/h, Tan[α - β] == (R - k)/h0}, {R,α, β, k}]? $\endgroup$ – AccidentalFourierTransform Jul 2 at 0:16
  • $\begingroup$ @AccidentalFourierTransform: Hah! That worked! But why shouldn't just solving for a single variable work? After all, it did for the single equation. $\endgroup$ – David G. Stork Jul 2 at 0:18
  • $\begingroup$ @AccidentalFourierTransform - For a cleaner result, include assumptions and remove unnecessary conditions: Simplify[Solve[{Tan[β] == s/H, Tan[β] == k/(H - h0), Tan[α/2] == r/h, Tan[α - β] == (R - k)/h0, 0 < h0 < h < H, s < r}, {R, α, β, k}], {0 < h0 < h < H, s < r}] /. (ConditionalExpression[expr_, Element[var_, Integers]] /; FreeQ[expr, var]) :> expr $\endgroup$ – Bob Hanlon Jul 2 at 2:21

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