# Create a Venn diagram showing the relations of three sets of quantum states [closed]

I've determined a number of probabilities pertaining to three subsets of the "magic simplex" of quantum states described in https://arxiv.org/abs/1212.5046, and certainly would like to have a pictorial representation of their interrelations--presumably, in the form of a Venn diagram (cf. Fig. 3 in cited paper).

One set--$$A$$, call it--is composed of those states, the density matrices for which have "positive-partial-transposes" (PPT). Its probability is $$\frac{8 \pi}{27 \sqrt{3}} \approx 0.537422$$.

Another set--$$B$$--consists of those states that pass a certain (mutually-orthogonal-bases [MUB]) test for entanglement. Its probability is $$\frac{1}{6} \approx 0.16667$$.

The third set--$$C$$--consists of states that pass another (Choi witness) test for entanglement. Its probability is also $$\frac{1}{6} \approx 0.16667$$.

The intersections of $$A$$ and $$B$$ and of $$A$$ and $$C$$ give conceptually-important "bound-entanglement" probabilities. Both amounts are $$-\frac{4}{9}+\frac{4 \pi }{27 \sqrt{3}}+\frac{\log (27)}{18} \approx 0.00736862$$.

$$B \land C$$ is $$\frac{1}{9} \approx 0.11111$$.

$$B \lor C$$ is $$\frac{2}{9} \approx 0.22222$$.

Both $$\neg B \land C$$ and $$B \land \neg C$$ are $$\frac{1}{18}$$.

$$A\land \neg B\land \neg C$$ gives $$\frac{1}{9} (8 - \log{3}) \approx 0.52268$$.

$$A \land B \land C$$ is void.

So, I would like a (planar?) Venn-type diagram representing--as well as possible--the intersection and union relations between $$A, B$$ and $$C$$ and the larger set $$D$$ of probability 1, of which they are subsets.

An immediate idea would be to try to represent them by circles--but, I think, there is also an approach ("Euler diagrams" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euler_diagram) in which rectangles are employed.

## closed as unclear what you're asking by Roman, MarcoB, corey979, m_goldberg, Alex TrounevMay 10 at 19:02

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• It would be great if you could add some code to your question to help those of us with less maths knowledge and more mathematica knowledge understand what you're asking. – Carl Lange May 9 at 19:23

Here is an attempt to represent the relations between the three subsets of the larger set $$D$$ of probability 1, represented by a circle ($$D$$) centered at the origin $$\{0,0\}$$ of radius $$\frac{1}{\sqrt{\pi}}$$.

I used the circle-circle intersection formula for "the area of a general asymmetric lens obtained from circles of radii R and r and offset d" (http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Lens.html)

-(1/2) Sqrt[(d + r - R) (d - r + R) (-d + r + R) (d + r + R)] + r^2 ArcCos[(d^2 + r^2 - R^2)/(2 d r)] + R^2 ArcCos[(d^2 - r^2 + R^2)/(2 d R)]


with the three radii

rA = Sqrt[(8 Pi/(27 Sqrt))/Pi]; rB = Sqrt[1/6]; rC = Sqrt[1/6];


and the three overlap probabilities

overlapAC = -(4/9) + (4 \[Pi])/(27 Sqrt) + Log/18; overlapAB =  -(4/9) + (4 \[Pi])/(27 Sqrt) + Log/18; overlapBC = 1/9


The command

Solve[{inter[rA, rB, dAB] == overlapAB,inter[rA, rC, dAC] == overlapAC, inter[rB, rC, dBC]; == overlapBC}, {dAB, dAC, dBC}]


was not successful, and one could use FindRoot.

However, I did (am doing) a random search within $$D$$, constraining the possible locations for the center of $$A$$ to lie within a circle--again centered at the origin--of radius $$1-\frac{8 \pi}{27 \sqrt{3}}$$, in order that it not extend outside the overall (probability 1) set $$D$$. Similarly, the origins of the circles representing $$B$$ and $$C$$ have to lie within circles of radii $$\frac{5}{6}$$.

I tried minimizing a function (many possible candidates) of the fits of the overlap areas to the given probabilities.

The result is given by the webpage

Venn-diagram attempt

I would appreciate comments as to Mathematica commands for coloring/labeling ,...the sets so as to highlight the areas of intersection--or any alternative approaches to addressing the underlying question.