# Limit of this definite integral [closed]

How can I compute this integral for $$y\rightarrow0$$ ?

$$\int_0^1{\frac{y(1-x)^2(1+x)}{x+(1-x^2)y} dx}$$

## closed as off-topic by corey979, Roman, Michael E2, xzczd, AccidentalFourierTransformMay 1 at 14:39

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• Did you really mean to ask this here since you also posted on Math.SE? – StubbornAtom May 1 at 10:19
• Am I missing something? The integrand clearly goes to 0 as y approaches zero. – infinitezero May 1 at 13:26
• @infinitezero It seems there are some doubts about order of limits in y->0 and x close to zero. Doing x integral first and then taking y->0 does give the expected zero of course. – Kagaratsch May 1 at 13:30

Assuming[y > 0,
AsymptoticIntegrate[(y (1 - x)^2 (1 + x))/(x + (1 - x^2) y), {x, 0, 1}, {y, 0, 1}]]


1/6 y (-7 - 6 Log[y])

So the limit for $$y\to0^+$$ is zero:

Limit[%, y -> 0, Direction -> "FromAbove"]


0

For $$y<0$$ the integral does not converge.

• Is there a way to achieve the same result but analytically? – Luca Rossi May 1 at 9:30
• Integrate[(y (1 - x)^2 (1 + x))/(x + (1 - x^2) y), {x, 0, 1}, Assumptions -> y > 0] maybe, although the above is already analytic. – Roman May 1 at 9:33

Another approach if you want to avoid the use of AsymptoticIntegrate (whose very presence I learnt today, thanks @Roman:-)!).

Timing[
FullSimplify[
Integrate[(y (1 - x)^2 (1 + x))/(x + (1 - x^2) y), {x, 0, 1},
Assumptions -> y > 0], y > 0]]
(* {6.64063, ((-2 + y) y Sqrt[1 + 4 y^2] - (-1 + y) Sqrt[
1 + 4 y^2]
Log[y] + (1 - 2 y) y Log[(1 + 2 y - Sqrt[1 + 4 y^2])/(
1 + 2 y + Sqrt[1 + 4 y^2])] +
Log[(1 + 2 y + Sqrt[1 + 4 y^2])/(1 + 2 y - Sqrt[1 + 4 y^2])])/(
2 y^2 Sqrt[1 + 4 y^2])} *)

Normal[
Series[(1/(
2 y^2 Sqrt[
1 + 4 y^2]))((-2 + y) y Sqrt[1 + 4 y^2] - (-1 + y) Sqrt[1 + 4 y^2]
Log[y] + (1 - 2 y) y Log[(1 + 2 y - Sqrt[1 + 4 y^2])/(
1 + 2 y + Sqrt[1 + 4 y^2])] +
Log[(1 + 2 y + Sqrt[1 + 4 y^2])/(
1 + 2 y - Sqrt[1 + 4 y^2])]), {y, 0, 1}]] //
FullSimplify[#, y > 0] &
(* -(1/6) y (7 + 6 Log[y]) *)


The OP asked whether there is a way to achieve the result "analytically", which I assume implies "by steps that can be considered a proof by humans". Here is an attempt.

Define integrand

integrand = (y (1 - x)^2 (1 + x))/(x + (1 - x^2) y);


For any y>0 we see that there is no pole on the interval 1>x>0, which means we can obtain the integral over this region using the fundamental theorem of calculus by taking a difference of anti-derivatives evaluated at the boundary points.

First we may "guess" an anti-derivative:

antiderivative = Assuming[y > 0, Integrate[integrand, x] // Simplify] to prove that this is in fact a valid anti-derivative, simply take the derivative which is a simple mechanical process and can be done either by hand or as:

D[antiderivative, x] - integrand // Simplify


0

Having proven that we in fact have a correct anti-derivative, we evaluate it at the boundary points and take a difference:

integral = (antiderivative /. x -> 1) - (antiderivative /. x -> 0) // FullSimplify Finally, we take a series expansion of this result around the point y=0 to figure out its leading behavior:

Assuming[y > 0, Series[integral, {y, 0, 0}]] This means that the integral result vanishes at least linearly in y->0 so that the integral is zero in that limit.

Note that the derivative to prove the anti-derivative, the evaluation at x=1 and x=0, and the Taylor expansion around y=0 all can be done by hand on a piece of paper, which makes the steps humanly traceable and therefore constitutes a proof.