Intuitively, an angular vector field $\theta(x)$ such as the following would describe a domain wall between two vortices/strings of opposite winding number.

Domain Wall

I would like to draw this on a computer using Mathematica.

  1. How do I do this? What vector field describes a configuration depicted above?
  2. If it's not too much to ask, how do I model a time-evolving field which is constant at time $t=0$ and then as time evolves, the two vortices (fluxes) get created and separated to give the above configuration?


I can draw a single vortex/string with the following code, for example. How do I introduce another vortex with a domain wall in between?

θnew[r0_] := ArcTan[r Sin[θ]/(r Sin[θ] - r0)]

field = 
  {FullSimplify[Cos[num (θ + α)] Cos[θ] + Sin[num (θ + α)] Sin[θ]], 
   FullSimplify[-Cos[num (θ + α)] Sin[θ] + Sin[num (θ + α)] Cos[θ]]} /. 
  num -> 1 /. α -> Pi/2 /. θ -> θnew[0.5]

  Evaluate @ TransformedField["Polar" -> "Cartesian", field, {r, θ} -> {x, y}], 
  {x, -1, 1}, {y, -1, 1}, 
  RegionFunction -> Function[{x, y}, x^2 + y^2 > .2]]
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Such fields can be visualized with StreamPlot and VectorPlot. Please look them up and show what you tried so far. $\endgroup$
    – Szabolcs
    Commented Feb 18, 2019 at 14:17
  • $\begingroup$ @Szabolcs I am aware of those. Please see the edit above. $\endgroup$ Commented Feb 18, 2019 at 14:29
  • $\begingroup$ What you show in the embedded in figure and what the code in your edit produces are very different. I do not see the relationship. $\endgroup$
    – Szabolcs
    Commented Feb 18, 2019 at 14:32
  • $\begingroup$ @Szabolcs A vortex is a region around which a vector field has a winding number or a flux. What I have achieved so far is draw one such flux tube in Mathematica. The embedded figure shows two such fluxes or vortices. Away from the vortices, the field is constant. $\endgroup$ Commented Feb 18, 2019 at 14:37

1 Answer 1


Here's one way to produce graphics similar to what you show.

   s/3 ( Grad[1/Sqrt[(x + s)^2 + y^2], {x, y}] - 
       Grad[1/Sqrt[(x - s)^2 + y^2], {x, y}]) + {0.2, 0}],
  {x, -4, 4}, {y, -4, 4}, StreamMarkers -> "Pointer", 
  StreamPoints -> Fine],
 {s, 0, 2}

enter image description here

  • $\begingroup$ That's brilliant. Thanks. $\endgroup$ Commented Feb 18, 2019 at 14:37

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