# Correct interpretation of an ODE solution

I am not very good with Mathematica but I am trying to solve the following initial value problem

$$y''(t)=\lambda_1 y'(t)e^{y(t)}+ \lambda_2 y'(t)e^{-y(t)},$$

$$y(0)=0$$

I have tried first the following generic expression

y[t_,  Lambda1_,  Lambda2_, c1_ , c2_] :=
y[t] /. First @
DSolve[   {
y''[t] == Lambda1 y'[t] Exp[y[t]] +  Lambda2  y'[
t] Exp[-y[t]]  }   , y[t],t ] ] /. C -> c1 /. C -> c2


Giving

Log[(-c1 +
Sqrt[-c1^2 - 4 Lambda1 Lambda2
Tan[1/2 (c2 Sqrt[-c1^2 - 4 Lambda1 Lambda2 +
t Sqrt[-c1^2 - 4Lambda1 Lambda2)])/(2 Lambda1)]


Which is always a complex number. Trying to insert the boundary condition leads to

 DSolve[   {
y''[t] == Lambda1 y'[t] Exp[y[t]] + Lambda2  y'[
t] Exp[-y[t]], y == 0  }   , y[t], t ]

Solve::ifun: Inverse functions are being used by Solve, so some solutions may not be found; use Reduce for complete solution information.

DSolve::bvfail: For some branches of the general solution, unable to solve the conditions.

{}


Can anyone help me to interpret this equation, or the way I am possibly mishandling it?

• I'm missing a second intial condition. What do you know about Lamda1, Lamda2? – Ulrich Neumann Jan 17 at 15:08
• lambda1 and lambda2 are just positive constants. Adding y=y0 does not change the picture above – Mr_3_7 Jan 17 at 18:28

With this equation, I would operate a bit differently.

First, let us observe that the equation exhibits no explicit dependence on t. This allows us to easily decrease its order. Let us denote y'[t]=u[y]. In other words, we will consider the derivative, y'(t) as dependent only on y. Then dy'/dt=(du/dy)(dy/dt). This yileds dy'/dt=uu'. With this the equation is transformed to u*u'=(lambda1+lambda2)uexp(y). This one readily integrates yielding y'(t)=(lambda1+lambda2)exp(y)+c, where c is the constant of the first integration.

It makes sense to solve this one by DSolve:

DSolve[{y'[t] == lambda*Exp[y[t]] + c, y == 0}, y, t]

(*  {{y -> Function[{t}, -Log[-(lambda/c) -
E^(-c t) (-1 - lambda/c)]]}}   *)


Have fun!

• Thanks Alexei. Is this a general techinque? And the natural quesiton: how come Mathematica does not know about it (or, it gives an impossible answer)? – Mr_3_7 Jan 17 at 18:36
• First question: If an ODE shows no explicit dependence on t, yes it is generally so. Second question: Mathematica knows a lot, but not everything. Sometimes one needs to help it. – Alexei Boulbitch Jan 18 at 15:29
• A precisation. Under your transformation the equation actually becomes u*u'=lambda1exp(y) - lambda2 exp(-y) + c(lambda,1, lambda2). Mathematica still seems to struggle with this: the generic form returns five distinct solutions all of which require lambda1lambda2 <0, but lambda1=lambda2=1 (sinh) returns an actual solution. I accept your answer as the mehtodologically correct though. – Mr_3_7 Jan 22 at 9:37
• @Mr_3_7 In the equation you have written above there is no -y in the exponent. I solved what you gave. – Alexei Boulbitch Jan 22 at 13:19
• The minus appears in the code but you are right, there is a typo in the tex. Edited. – Mr_3_7 Jan 22 at 15:46

Here's another solution:

General solution:

dsol = First@ DSolve[{y''[t] == Lambda1 y'[t] Exp[y[t]] + Lambda2 y'[t] Exp[-y[t]]}, y, t]
(*
{y -> Function[{t},
Log[(1/(2 Lambda1))(-C +
Sqrt[-4 Lambda1 Lambda2 - C^2] Tan[1/2 (t Sqrt[-4 Lambda1 Lambda2 - C^2] +
Sqrt[-4 Lambda1 Lambda2 - C^2] C)])]]}
*)


General initial conditions:

c2sol = First@Solve[y == Log@c1 /. First@dsol, C]
(*
{C -> ConditionalExpression[(
2 (ArcTan[(2 c1 Lambda1 + C)/Sqrt[-4 Lambda1 Lambda2 - C^2]] + π C))/
Sqrt[-4 Lambda1 Lambda2 - C^2],
C ∈ Integers && -π < Im[Log[c1]] <= π]}
*)

c1sol = First@Solve[y' == c2 /. dsol /. c2sol, C]
(*
{C -> ConditionalExpression[(c1 c2 - c1^2 Lambda1 + Lambda2)/c1, C ∈ Integers]}
*)

ysol = y[t] /. dsol /. c2sol /. c1sol //
Simplify[#, C ∈ Integers && Log@c1 ∈ Reals] &
(*
Log[(1/(2 c1 Lambda1))(-c1 c2 + c1^2 Lambda1 - Lambda2 +
c1 Sqrt[-4 Lambda1 Lambda2 - (c1 c2 - c1^2 Lambda1 + Lambda2)^2/c1^2]
Tan[1/2 Sqrt[-4 Lambda1 Lambda2 - (c1 c2 - c1^2 Lambda1 + Lambda2)^2/c1^2] t +
ArcTan[(c1 c2 + c1^2 Lambda1 + Lambda2)/(
c1 Sqrt[-4 Lambda1 Lambda2 - (c1 c2 - c1^2 Lambda1 + Lambda2)^2/c1^2])]])]
*)


Solution to OP's IVP:

yivp = ysol /. c1 -> 1
(*
Log[(1/(2 Lambda1))(-c2 + Lambda1 - Lambda2 +
Sqrt[-4 Lambda1 Lambda2 - (c2 - Lambda1 + Lambda2)^2]
Tan[1/2 Sqrt[-4 Lambda1 Lambda2 - (c2 - Lambda1 + Lambda2)^2] t +
ArcTan[(c2 + Lambda1 + Lambda2)/
Sqrt[-4 Lambda1 Lambda2 - (c2 - Lambda1 + Lambda2)^2]]])]
*)


Check:

{y''[t] == Lambda1 y'[t] Exp[y[t]] + Lambda2 y'[t] Exp[-y[t]],
y == 0} /. y -> Function @@ {t, yivp} // Simplify
(*  {True, True}  *)
`
• Thanks! DSolve really needs some pre-processing I see – Mr_3_7 Jan 28 at 9:42
• There is still something fishy with the way Mathematica does this though. Lambda1 and Lambda2 cannot be positive in this solution. However, when I plug in positive values right at the outset, I get a (different) solution without problem. – Mr_3_7 Jan 28 at 9:58