I had same problem on different Linux. I will show what I did.
This is a known issue. see https://bugs.archlinux.org/task/57948
Problems with fontconfig and Mathematica. The following error is
symbol lookup error: /usr/lib/libfontconfig.so.1: undefined symbol:
What I did is this: become root, and removed 3 libs related to this error, from inside Mathematica system folder. To be safe, you can rename them instead.
Remove or rename freetype.so. and I remember also removing libz.so.
Here is the main link I used to help with this.
I switched back to windows for desktop since then.
I did send bug report to WRI on this. CASE:4082638 This is the reply I got
This may be related to a known issue and the developers are working on
resolving it for a future Mathematica version. In the meantime, please
consider placing libfreetype.so.6 in
directory. The libfreetype.so.6 component is available at
https://wolfr.am/vO0qvWH7PW: Another option is reverting
back to fontconfig 2.12. Please let us know if neither option
resolves the behavior. Wolfram Technical
btw, I did not follow the instructions in the email above, since by the time I got the reply, the problem was resolved by deleting these libraries mentioned above.