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I wish to perform the integral $$ \int \prod_{i,j}dM_{ij}\exp\left(-Tr(M^2)\right) $$ where we integrate over the matrix elements of $M$. I tried

Integrate[Exp[-Tr[matrix^2]],Product[Part[matrix,i,j],{matrix}]];

I know this is wrong and I get "The expression i cannot be used as a part specification.", but how should I write this instead?

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    $\begingroup$ Do you mean the component-wise square of the matrix or the matrix product of M with itself? $\endgroup$ – Henrik Schumacher Nov 1 '18 at 18:09
  • $\begingroup$ @HenrikSchumacher The matrix product. But what I try to understand is not the integrand, but how to express the $dM_{ij}$ with Mathematica $\endgroup$ – Marianne Moore Nov 1 '18 at 18:21
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I'm assuming $\prod_{i,j} dM_{i,j} = dM_{1,1} dM_{1,2}\ldots$ so as to successively integrate over each element in your matrix.

Then

mat = {{a, b}, {c, d}}
Integrate[Exp[-Tr[MatrixPower[mat, 2]]], ##] & @@ Flatten@mat

-(1/8) π Erf[a] Erf[d] ExpIntegralEi[-2 b c]

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  • $\begingroup$ My matrix is a GUE (mat=RandomVariate[GaussianUnitaryMatrixDistribution[some rank]];) and it returns me the error 'Invalid integration variable or limit(s)' $\endgroup$ – Marianne Moore Nov 2 '18 at 0:01
  • $\begingroup$ You could try starting with a symbolic matrix, then integrate, then replace the symbols with the appropriate numbers in the final output or implement integration bounds as in @Henrik's answer. Otherwise, since your matrix is made of numeric quantities, integrating with respect to a number doesn't really work. $\endgroup$ – That Gravity Guy Nov 2 '18 at 1:27
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Just some shot into the dark because I am not sure whether I understood exactly want you want to compute:

n = 3;
M = Array[m, {n, n}];
With[{vars = Sequence @@ Transpose[{Flatten[M], ConstantArray[-∞, n^2], ConstantArray[∞, n^2]}]},
 Integrate[Exp[-Tr[M\[Transpose].M]], vars]
 ]

π^(9/2)

Also notice that

With[{vars = Sequence @@ Transpose[{Flatten[M], ConstantArray[-∞, n^2], ConstantArray[∞, n^2]}]},
 Integrate[Exp[-Tr[M.M]], vars]
 ]

will lead to an error message stating that integral won't converge.

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  • $\begingroup$ For arbitrary n, a wild guess would be (Pi)^(n^2/2) :-) $\endgroup$ – chris Nov 2 '18 at 0:09

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