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I don't know which command to determine the tangent lines that are parallel to the line $x=0$ (i.e. the y-axis) in Polar Coordinates. Can you help me please to give me some suggestions?

I attach some code which I have written:

theta = 45;
the = theta*Pi/180;
alp = 2;
gc = Sqrt[1 + alp*Sin[x - the]*Sin[x - the]];
yy = 1/gc;
PolarPlot[yy, {x, 0, 2*Pi}, PolarAxes -> True, 
 PolarTicks -> {"Degrees", Automatic}, PolarGridLines -> True, 
 Mesh -> 15, MeshStyle -> Directive[PointSize[Large], Red]]
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  • $\begingroup$ Why not switch to parametric equations? #2/#1 & @@ D[yy {Cos[x], Sin[x]}, x]? $\endgroup$ Oct 14, 2018 at 1:31
  • $\begingroup$ @J.M.issomewhatokay. YOU mean ff = #1/#2 & @@ D[yy {Cos[x], Sin[x]}, x]; mm = Solve[ff == 0, x]; here not #2/#1, Solve::ifun: Inverse functions are being used by Solve, so some solutions may not be found; use Reduce for complete solution information. $\endgroup$
    – ABCDEMMM
    Oct 14, 2018 at 2:12

1 Answer 1

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yy = 1 / gc;
f[x_] := Evaluate[yy {Cos[x], Sin[x]}]
tangent[x_] := Evaluate[Simplify@FrenetSerretSystem[f[x], x][[2, 1]]]

pts1 = N[x /. Solve[{Divide @@ tangent[x] == 0, 0 <= x <= 2 Pi}, x, Reals]]

{0.197395, 3.33898}

pts2 = N[x /. Solve[{Divide[#2, #1] & @@ tangent[x] == 0, 0 <= x <= 2 Pi}, x, Reals]]

{4.51499, 1.3734007}

epilog = {Text[Style[ToString[Round[#/Degree, .1]] <> "°", Black],
       {.1, .05} + (f@#)] & /@ Join[pts1, pts2], 
    Thick, Purple, PointSize[Large] , Point[f /@ pts1], 
    Magenta, Point[f /@ pts2], Green, Point[f[#]], 
    Cyan, Line /@ ({{# - 1/3, #2}, {# + 1/3, #2}} & @@@ (f /@ pts2)), 
    Orange, Line /@ ({{#, #2 - 1/3}, {#, #2 + 1/3}} & @@@ (f /@ pts1)), 
    Red, Line[{f[#] - .5 tangent[#], f[#] + .5 tangent[#]}]} &;

Manipulate[PolarPlot[yy, {x, 0, 2 Pi}, Epilog -> epilog[-t]], {t, 0, 2 Pi, Pi/100}]

enter image description here

Using OP's code with the option Epilog:

PolarPlot[yy, {x, 0, 2*Pi}, PolarAxes -> True, 
 PolarTicks -> {"Degrees", Automatic}, PolarGridLines -> True, 
 Mesh -> 15, MeshStyle -> Directive[PointSize[Large], Red], 
 Epilog -> {Thick, Purple, PointSize[Large] , Point[f /@ pts1], 
   Magenta, Point[f /@ pts2], 
   Cyan, Line /@ ({{# - 1/2, #2}, {# + 1/2, #2}} & @@@ (f /@ pts2)), 
   Orange, Line /@ ({{#, #2 - 1/2}, {#, #2 + 1/2}} & @@@ (f /@ pts1))}]

enter image description here

Update: Starting with theta = 65; and going through the same steps:

PolarPlot[yy, {x, 0, 2*Pi}, PolarAxes -> True, 
 PolarTicks -> {"Degrees", Automatic}, PolarGridLines -> True, 
 Mesh -> 15, MeshStyle -> Directive[PointSize[Large], Red], 
 Epilog -> {Text[Style[ToString[Round[#/Degree, .1]] <> "°", Black],
       {.1, .05} + (f@#)] & /@ Join[pts1, pts2] , 
   Thick, Purple, PointSize[Large], Point[f /@ pts1], 
   Magenta, Point[f /@ pts2], 
   Cyan, Line /@ ({{# - 1/2, #2}, {# + 1/2, #2}} & @@@ (f /@ pts2)), 
   Orange, Line /@ ({{#, #2 - 1/2}, {#, #2 + 1/2}} & @@@ (f /@ pts1))}]

enter image description here

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  • $\begingroup$ search the node: the tangent of node is parallel to the line x=0 ... not tangent in every node... $\endgroup$
    – ABCDEMMM
    Oct 14, 2018 at 0:38
  • $\begingroup$ @ABCDEMMM, please see the update. $\endgroup$
    – kglr
    Oct 14, 2018 at 2:22
  • $\begingroup$ nice to see! thanks a lot! $\endgroup$
    – ABCDEMMM
    Oct 14, 2018 at 2:26
  • $\begingroup$ is it possible that in the near of each node I can add the value of [Degrees], example: P1 = 10,33 Degree? P.S. I can do it in PPTX ... $\endgroup$
    – ABCDEMMM
    Oct 14, 2018 at 2:36
  • $\begingroup$ you mean Text[Style[ToString[Round[#/Degree, .1]] <> "°", Black] in labels ? $\endgroup$
    – ABCDEMMM
    Oct 14, 2018 at 3:28

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