# Defined function doesn't plot correctly

I have defined a function that produces a single negative impulse spanning -b to -a and a positive impulse spanning a to b, and gives 0 for all other values of x (for real x). I then adjust the function so that the area under each single impulse is always equal to -1 or 1. So:

f[x_] := If[x < -b, 0, If[-b <= x <= -a,
-((Cos[Pi*((x + (a + b)/2)/((b - a)/2))] + 1)/(b - a)),
If[-a < x < a, 0, If[a <= x <= b, (Cos[Pi*((x + (a + b)/2)/((b - a)/2))] + 1)/
(b - a), 0]]]]


Here's a plot to show what I'm after:

Plot[{f[x] /. a -> 1 /. b -> 2}, {x, -3, 3}, PlotLegends -> "Expressions"] This pattern should hold true for all values of a<b, no? However, it seems to fail for some values of a and b, and for positive x (but only for positive x, despite the function being so obviously odd). For example

Plot[{f[x] /. a -> 0 /. b -> 1, f[x] /. a -> 1 /. b -> 3,
f[x] /. a -> 2 /. b -> 5, f[x] /. a -> 3 /. b -> 7,
f[x] /. a -> 4 /. b -> 9}, {x, -10, 10}, PlotRange -> Full,
PlotLegends -> "Expressions"]


produces What am I doing wrong?

• Thanks to JM for the answer below. I'll mark it as answered shortly. But first, would you mid explaining why it didn't work the way I had it? Is the function itself in error, or is this a MMA issue? – Richard Burke-Ward Sep 28 '18 at 12:14
• Debugging is a bit more work; if you don't mind waiting a bit, I'll write an extension much later. – J. M. is away Sep 28 '18 at 12:29
• I don't mind waiting at all. Would prefer to get to the bottom of it if poss. Thanks so much. – Richard Burke-Ward Sep 28 '18 at 13:04

## 1 Answer

One can judiciously combine Haversine[], Rescale[], and Clip[]:

twinpulse[x_, {a_, b_}] /; 0 <= a < b :=
2 Sign[x] Haversine[Clip[Rescale[Abs[x], {a, b}, {0, 2 π}], {0, 2 π}]]/(b - a)

Plot[Table[twinpulse[x, sp], {sp, {{0, 1}, {1, 3}, {2, 5}, {3, 7}, {4, 9}}}] // Evaluate,
{x, -10, 10}, PlotRange -> Full] ## How to invent a function

I'll go over through the thought process I had in coming up with this solution, and along the way point out what was the problem with the OP's solution.

Some prerequisites: recall that the haversine can be expressed as

$$\operatorname{hav}(x)=\frac{1-\cos x}{2}=\sin^2\frac{x}{2}$$

It is a $$2\pi$$-periodic function, so one can restrict attention to the interval $$[0,2\pi]$$:

Plot[Haversine[x], {x, 0, 2 π}] which is in the right shape for a pulse.

The OP gave two additional stipulations for the pulse: it should range over $$[a,b]$$, and it should have unit area. However, the haversine ranges over $$[0,2\pi]$$ naturally, so a change of variables is needed.

Mathematica has a built-in function, Rescale[], which can remap one interval to another. For this situation, we want a function that remaps the given interval $$[a,b]$$ to the haversine's natural interval $$[0,2\pi]$$:

Rescale[x, {a, b}, {0, 2 π}] // Together // Factor
2 π (a - x)/(a - b)


which can now be composed with the haversine:

Haversine[Rescale[x, {a, b}, {0, 2 π}] // Factor] // FunctionExpand
(1 - Cos[(2 π (a - x))/(a - b)])/2


At once, we spot a difference between this and the OP's expression: the OP's expression uses $$1+\cos(\cdot)$$, and a different shift $$(a+b)/2$$.

From here, we also need to impose the unit area constraint. That means we have to divide by the function by its integral over $$[a,b]$$:

Assuming[a < b, Integrate[(1 - Cos[(2 π (a - x))/(a - b)])/2, {x, a, b}]]
(-a + b)/2


We're almost there! Now, the OP only wanted a single pulse, while haversine is actually a periodic function. Conveniently, haversine is zero at both ends of the interval, so we just need to add a Clip[] to restrict the result of Rescale[] before it gets passed to the haversine:

2 Haversine[Clip[Rescale[x, {a, b}, {0, 2 π}], {0, 2 π}]]/(b - a)


This shows only one pulse, so we need one last transformation. We replace x with Abs[x] and multiply by Sign[x], which enforces the odd function condition. We finally have

2 Sign[x] Haversine[Clip[Rescale[Abs[x], {a, b}, {0, 2 π}], {0, 2 π}]]/(b - a)


which was the expression I used above.

Expressed more conventionally,

Assuming[x ∈ Reals && 0 <= a < b,
FullSimplify[FunctionExpand[PiecewiseExpand[
2 Sign[x] Haversine[Clip[Rescale[Abs[x], {a, b}, {0, 2 π}], {0, 2 π}]]/(b - a)]]]]


$$\begin{cases} -\frac{2 \sin ^2\left(\frac{\pi (a-x)}{a-b}\right)}{a-b} & x>0\land 0\leq \frac{\pi (a-x)}{a-b}\leq \pi \\ \frac{2 \sin ^2\left(\frac{\pi (a+x)}{a-b}\right)}{a-b} & x<0\land 0\leq \frac{\pi (a+x)}{a-b}\leq \pi \end{cases}$$

• This is totally awesome, and now marked as answered. But can I ask: what did I do wrong in the first place? You have totally reconstructed the function for me, and I'm hugely grateful; but I'm still not clear why my version didn't work... – Richard Burke-Ward Sep 28 '18 at 15:03
• As I said: you has used $1+\cos(\cdot)$ instead of haversine's $1-\cos(\cdot)$, and you had used the wrong shift of variable x + (a + b)/2. – J. M. is away Sep 28 '18 at 15:05
• Hmmm... OK, will have to think about that. Not clear to me why haversine is the way to go. But your solution works, and I'm very grateful. – Richard Burke-Ward Sep 28 '18 at 15:17
• If you really want to use $1+\cos$, then you need to rescale $[a,b]$ to $[-\pi,\pi]$: spot the difference between the result of Rescale[x, {a, b}, {-π, π}] and what you used in your formula. – J. M. is away Sep 28 '18 at 15:24
• OK, getting there now. Much appreciated. – Richard Burke-Ward Sep 28 '18 at 15:25