# Complex roots of a transcendental equation

Let's define,

$k(e)=\sqrt{e}$, $\gamma_1(e,v_1,v_2)=(v_1+iv_2)/(i*k(e))$ , $\gamma_2(e,v_1,v_2)=(v_1-iv_2)/(i*k(e))$, $$\\$$ Now the function gets defined as, $f(e,v_1,v_2)=(2-\gamma_1(e,v_1,v_2)) (2-\gamma_2(e,v_1,v_2))-\gamma_1(e,v_1,v_2) \gamma_2(e,v_1,v_2)* e^{4 ik(e)}$

If I take, $v_1=1.4$, $v_2=2.2$, Then function $|f(e,v_1,v_2)|$ has a real root around 1.5, and I want know about its complex roots by any means.

Here again rewrite above expressions,

k[e_]:=Sqrt[e];
gamma1[e_,v1_,v2_]:=(v1+I*v2)/(I*k[e]);
gamma2[e_,v1_,v2_]:=(v1-I*v2)/(I*k[e]);
f[e_,v1_,v2_]:=(2-gamma1[e,v1,v2])*(2-gamma2[e,v1,v2])-gamma1[e,v1,v2] *gamma2[e,v1,v2]* Exp[4*I*k[e]]

• Provide your expressions as text-only Mathematica code in addition to $\LaTeX$ expressions. May 6, 2018 at 18:29
• @MarcoB thanks! Done May 6, 2018 at 18:34
• That is not sensible Mathematica code. Misused parentheses and underscore, to start. May 6, 2018 at 18:36
• @JohnDoty, oh! yes, corrected May 6, 2018 at 18:45
• Ok, so how have you tried to solve it? May 6, 2018 at 18:58

Plotting suggests a root around 6-I.

ContourPlot[Abs[f[x + I y, 1.4, 2.2]], {x, 0, 10}, {y, -2, 10}]


FindRoot isn't very good for Abs[something]==0: it wants to see the function cross zero. Use FindMinimum:

FindMinimum[Abs[f[x + I y, 1.4, 2.2]], {{x, 6}, {y, -1}}]


After some complaining, it yields {1.30986*10^-7, {x -> 5.98286, y -> -1.3557}}, which may be good enough. Other roots, better roots, avoiding complaints, etc. left as an exercise for you.

If you bound the domain, NSolve can usually find all roots of an analytic function:

NSolve[f[e, 1.4, 2.2] == 0 && -10 < Re[e] < 10 && -10 < Im[e] < 10, e]
(*  {{e -> 1.46847 - 0.00315635 I}, {e -> 5.98286 - 1.3557 I}}  *)


You can make the domain somewhat larger:

NSolve[f[e, 1.4, 2.2] == 0 && 0 < Re[e] < 1000 && -100 < Im[e] < 100, e]
(*
{{e -> 1.46847 - 0.00315635 I}, {e -> 5.98286 - 1.3557 I}, {e ->
15.3143 - 4.22245 I}, {e -> 29.7131 - 7.79704 I}, {e ->
49.12 - 11.836 I}, {e -> 73.5089 - 16.229 I}, {e ->
102.866 - 20.9096 I}, {e -> 137.184 - 25.8326 I}, {e ->
176.457 - 30.9654 I}, {e -> 220.681 - 36.2831 I}, {e ->
269.854 - 41.7662 I}, {e -> 323.974 - 47.3988 I}, {e ->
383.038 - 53.1679 I}, {e -> 447.046 - 59.0626 I}, {e ->
515.996 - 65.0736 I}, {e -> 589.888 - 71.1928 I}, {e ->
668.721 - 77.4132 I}, {e -> 752.495 - 83.7288 I}, {e ->
841.208 - 90.134 I}, {e -> 934.86 - 96.6241 I}}
*)