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Assume we have the following coordinates:

coord = Table[{i, j}, {j, 1.0, -1.0, -0.1}, {i, -1.0, 1.0, 0.1}]

What is the most efficient way to calculate the radius r. i.e. r = sqrt(i^2+j^2) and set r to 0 for all r whose value is greater than 1.

So basically it will get a list like {0,0,0,0,0.989,0.979...0,0,0}.

I already have my own solution, which is not elegant I think. And I hope the algorithm could be as fast as possible. So I would like to hear more sophisticated ideas.

Thanks!

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To find the distances, you can use Total:

coord = Table[{i, j}, {j, 1.0, -1.0, -0.1}, {i, -1.0, 1.0, 0.1}];
d = Sqrt @ Total[coord^2, {3}];

(since coord has dimensions $21 \times 21 \times 2$, the second argument of Total is {3}). Then, one idea is to use Clip:

res = Clip[d, {0, 1}, {1, 0}]

{{0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 1., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.}, {0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.984886, 0.948683, 0.921954, 0.905539, 0.9, 0.905539, 0.921954, 0.948683, 0.984886, 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.}, {0., 0., 0., 0., 1., 0.943398, 0.894427, 0.8544, 0.824621, 0.806226, 0.8, 0.806226, 0.824621, 0.8544, 0.894427, 0.943398, 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.}, {0., 0., 0., 0.989949, 0.921954, 0.860233, 0.806226, 0.761577, 0.728011, 0.707107, 0.7, 0.707107, 0.728011, 0.761577, 0.806226, 0.860233, 0.921954, 0.989949, 0., 0., 0.}, {0., 0., 1., 0.921954, 0.848528, 0.781025, 0.72111, 0.67082, 0.632456, 0.608276, 0.6, 0.608276, 0.632456, 0.67082, 0.72111, 0.781025, 0.848528, 0.921954, 1., 0., 0.}, {0., 0., 0.943398, 0.860233, 0.781025, 0.707107, 0.640312, 0.583095, 0.538516, 0.509902, 0.5, 0.509902, 0.538516, 0.583095, 0.640312, 0.707107, 0.781025, 0.860233, 0.943398, 0., 0.}, {0., 0.984886, 0.894427, 0.806226, 0.72111, 0.640312, 0.565685, 0.5, 0.447214, 0.412311, 0.4, 0.412311, 0.447214, 0.5, 0.565685, 0.640312, 0.72111, 0.806226, 0.894427, 0.984886, 0.}, {0., 0.948683, 0.8544, 0.761577, 0.67082, 0.583095, 0.5, 0.424264, 0.360555, 0.316228, 0.3, 0.316228, 0.360555, 0.424264, 0.5, 0.583095, 0.67082, 0.761577, 0.8544, 0.948683, 0.}, {0., 0.921954, 0.824621, 0.728011, 0.632456, 0.538516, 0.447214, 0.360555, 0.282843, 0.223607, 0.2, 0.223607, 0.282843, 0.360555, 0.447214, 0.538516, 0.632456, 0.728011, 0.824621, 0.921954, 0.}, {0., 0.905539, 0.806226, 0.707107, 0.608276, 0.509902, 0.412311, 0.316228, 0.223607, 0.141421, 0.1, 0.141421, 0.223607, 0.316228, 0.412311, 0.509902, 0.608276, 0.707107, 0.806226, 0.905539, 0.}, {1., 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1, 0., 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.}, {0., 0.905539, 0.806226, 0.707107, 0.608276, 0.509902, 0.412311, 0.316228, 0.223607, 0.141421, 0.1, 0.141421, 0.223607, 0.316228, 0.412311, 0.509902, 0.608276, 0.707107, 0.806226, 0.905539, 0.}, {0., 0.921954, 0.824621, 0.728011, 0.632456, 0.538516, 0.447214, 0.360555, 0.282843, 0.223607, 0.2, 0.223607, 0.282843, 0.360555, 0.447214, 0.538516, 0.632456, 0.728011, 0.824621, 0.921954, 0.}, {0., 0.948683, 0.8544, 0.761577, 0.67082, 0.583095, 0.5, 0.424264, 0.360555, 0.316228, 0.3, 0.316228, 0.360555, 0.424264, 0.5, 0.583095, 0.67082, 0.761577, 0.8544, 0.948683, 0.}, {0., 0.984886, 0.894427, 0.806226, 0.72111, 0.640312, 0.565685, 0.5, 0.447214, 0.412311, 0.4, 0.412311, 0.447214, 0.5, 0.565685, 0.640312, 0.72111, 0.806226, 0.894427, 0.984886, 0.}, {0., 0., 0.943398, 0.860233, 0.781025, 0.707107, 0.640312, 0.583095, 0.538516, 0.509902, 0.5, 0.509902, 0.538516, 0.583095, 0.640312, 0.707107, 0.781025, 0.860233, 0.943398, 0., 0.}, {0., 0., 0., 0.921954, 0.848528, 0.781025, 0.72111, 0.67082, 0.632456, 0.608276, 0.6, 0.608276, 0.632456, 0.67082, 0.72111, 0.781025, 0.848528, 0.921954, 0., 0., 0.}, {0., 0., 0., 0.989949, 0.921954, 0.860233, 0.806226, 0.761577, 0.728011, 0.707107, 0.7, 0.707107, 0.728011, 0.761577, 0.806226, 0.860233, 0.921954, 0.989949, 0., 0., 0.}, {0., 0., 0., 0., 1., 0.943398, 0.894427, 0.8544, 0.824621, 0.806226, 0.8, 0.806226, 0.824621, 0.8544, 0.894427, 0.943398, 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.}, {0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.984886, 0.948683, 0.921954, 0.905539, 0.9, 0.905539, 0.921954, 0.948683, 0.984886, 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.}, {0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 1., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.}}

Since speed is a concern, here is the timing for a list of 10^7 points:

SeedRandom[1]
pts = RandomReal[10, {10^7, 2}];
d = Sqrt @ Total[pts^2, {2}]; //AbsoluteTiming
Clip[d, {0, 1}, {1, 0}]; //AbsoluteTiming

{0.334351, Null}

{0.034603, Null}

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  • $\begingroup$ Thank you very much! $\endgroup$ – cj9435042 May 3 '18 at 3:27
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How about this?

 coord = Join @@Table[{i, j}, {j, 1.0, -1.0, -0.1}, {i, -1.0, 1.0, 0.1}]; 
   If[# > 1, 0, #] & /@ (Sqrt[#[[1]]^2 + #[[2]]^2] & /@ coord)

Or you can do this.

coord = Join @@Table[{i, j, Sqrt[i^2 + j^2]}, {j, 1.0, -1.0, -0.1}, {i, -1.0, 1.0, 0.1}];
If[# > 1, 0, #] & /@ coord[[All, 3]]
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  • $\begingroup$ Thanks a lot, this one is pretty neat. $\endgroup$ – cj9435042 May 3 '18 at 3:27
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Dot is a bit faster than Total:

coord = Table[{i, j}, {j, 1.0, -1.0, -0.01}, {i, -1.0, 1.0, 0.01}];
a = Clip[Sqrt@Total[coord^2, {3}], {0, 1}, {1, 0}]; // 
  RepeatedTiming // First
b = Clip[Sqrt@Dot[coord^2, ConstantArray[1., 2]], {0., 1.}, {0., 0.}]; // RepeatedTiming // First
a == b

0.00133

0.000428

True

Note however that this is a dangerous operation to perform with finite precision as it is discontinuous. For example, compare this:

coord = Table[{i, j}, {j, 1.0, -1.0, -0.1}, {i, -1.0, 1.0, 0.1}];
coordI = Table[{i, j}, {j, 1, -1, -1/10}, {i, -1, 1, 1/10}];

b = Clip[Sqrt@Dot[coord^2, ConstantArray[1., 2]], {0., 1.}, {0., 0.}];
bI = Clip[Sqrt@Dot[coordI^2, ConstantArray[1, 2]], {0., 1.}, {0., 0.}];
b == bI

False

So make sure that nobody's life depends on this code.

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  • $\begingroup$ thanks for this enlightening idea! $\endgroup$ – cj9435042 May 4 '18 at 13:53
  • $\begingroup$ You're welcome! $\endgroup$ – Henrik Schumacher May 4 '18 at 13:58
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This is another simple way:

transf[list_List] := 
  With[{n = list[[1]]^2 + list[[2]]^2}, If[n > 1, 0, Sqrt[n]]];
 Flatten@Map[transf, coord, {2}] // AbsoluteTiming

{0.00214796, {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1., 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0.984886, 0.948683, 0.921954, 0.905539, 0.9, 0.905539, 0.921954, 0.948683, 0.984886, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1., 0.943398, 0.894427, 0.8544, 0.824621, 0.806226, 0.8, 0.806226, 0.824621, 0.8544, 0.894427, 0.943398, 1., 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0.989949, 0.921954, 0.860233, 0.806226, 0.761577, 0.728011, 0.707107, 0.7, 0.707107, 0.728011, 0.761577, 0.806226, 0.860233, 0.921954, 0.989949, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1., 0.921954, 0.848528, 0.781025, 0.72111, 0.67082, 0.632456, 0.608276, 0.6, 0.608276, 0.632456, 0.67082, 0.72111, 0.781025, 0.848528, 0.921954, 1., 0, 0, 0, 0, 0.943398, 0.860233, 0.781025, 0.707107, 0.640312, 0.583095, 0.538516, 0.509902, 0.5, 0.509902, 0.538516, 0.583095, 0.640312, 0.707107, 0.781025, 0.860233, 0.943398, 0, 0, 0, 0.984886, 0.894427, 0.806226, 0.72111, 0.640312, 0.565685, 0.5, 0.447214, 0.412311, 0.4, 0.412311, 0.447214, 0.5, 0.565685, 0.640312, 0.72111, 0.806226, 0.894427, 0.984886, 0, 0, 0.948683, 0.8544, 0.761577, 0.67082, 0.583095, 0.5, 0.424264, 0.360555, 0.316228, 0.3, 0.316228, 0.360555, 0.424264, 0.5, 0.583095, 0.67082, 0.761577, 0.8544, 0.948683, 0, 0, 0.921954, 0.824621, 0.728011, 0.632456, 0.538516, 0.447214, 0.360555, 0.282843, 0.223607, 0.2, 0.223607, 0.282843, 0.360555, 0.447214, 0.538516, 0.632456, 0.728011, 0.824621, 0.921954, 0, 0, 0.905539, 0.806226, 0.707107, 0.608276, 0.509902, 0.412311, 0.316228, 0.223607, 0.141421, 0.1, 0.141421, 0.223607, 0.316228, 0.412311, 0.509902, 0.608276, 0.707107, 0.806226, 0.905539, 0, 1., 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1, 0., 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1., 0, 0.905539, 0.806226, 0.707107, 0.608276, 0.509902, 0.412311, 0.316228, 0.223607, 0.141421, 0.1, 0.141421, 0.223607, 0.316228, 0.412311, 0.509902, 0.608276, 0.707107, 0.806226, 0.905539, 0, 0, 0.921954, 0.824621, 0.728011, 0.632456, 0.538516, 0.447214, 0.360555, 0.282843, 0.223607, 0.2, 0.223607, 0.282843, 0.360555, 0.447214, 0.538516, 0.632456, 0.728011, 0.824621, 0.921954, 0, 0, 0.948683, 0.8544, 0.761577, 0.67082, 0.583095, 0.5, 0.424264, 0.360555, 0.316228, 0.3, 0.316228, 0.360555, 0.424264, 0.5, 0.583095, 0.67082, 0.761577, 0.8544, 0.948683, 0, 0, 0.984886, 0.894427, 0.806226, 0.72111, 0.640312, 0.565685, 0.5, 0.447214, 0.412311, 0.4, 0.412311, 0.447214, 0.5, 0.565685, 0.640312, 0.72111, 0.806226, 0.894427, 0.984886, 0, 0, 0, 0.943398, 0.860233, 0.781025, 0.707107, 0.640312, 0.583095, 0.538516, 0.509902, 0.5, 0.509902, 0.538516, 0.583095, 0.640312, 0.707107, 0.781025, 0.860233, 0.943398, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1., 0.921954, 0.848528, 0.781025, 0.72111, 0.67082, 0.632456, 0.608276, 0.6, 0.608276, 0.632456, 0.67082, 0.72111, 0.781025, 0.848528, 0.921954, 1., 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0.989949, 0.921954, 0.860233, 0.806226, 0.761577, 0.728011, 0.707107, 0.7, 0.707107, 0.728011, 0.761577, 0.806226, 0.860233, 0.921954, 0.989949, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1., 0.943398, 0.894427, 0.8544, 0.824621, 0.806226, 0.8, 0.806226, 0.824621, 0.8544, 0.894427, 0.943398, 1., 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0.984886, 0.948683, 0.921954, 0.905539, 0.9, 0.905539, 0.921954, 0.948683, 0.984886, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1., 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}}

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