# Jacobian for parallelised FindRoot with multiple variables

Michael E2 explains how to use parallel processing to speed up multiple FindRoot calculation with the same function in https://mathematica.stackexchange.com/a/163295/40271.

An example of some code which does this is

f[x_] := x^x + (4 - x)^(4 - x) - 20;
df0[x_?VectorQ] = D[f[x], x];
df[x_?VectorQ] := DiagonalMatrix@SparseArray@df0[x];
params = RandomReal[{2, 3}, 10];
FindRoot[f[x], {x, params}, Jacobian :> df[x]]


I would now like to extend this to work in more than one variable. A syntax to do this is quite simple;

f[x_, y_] := {x^x + y^y - 20, x + y - 4}
inits = RandomReal[{2, 3}, {2, 10}];
FindRoot[f[x,y], {{x, inits[]}, {y, inits[]}}]


However I can't find the right syntax to add in an explicit Jacobian. My example code is

f[x_, y_] := {x^x + y^y - 20, x + y - 4}
df0[x_, y_] = Outer[D, f[x, y], {x,y}];
df[x_, y_] := df0[x, y]
inits = RandomReal[{2, 3}, {2, 10}];
Block[{x, y},
FindRoot[f[x, y], {{x, inits[]}, {y, inits[]}},
Jacobian :> df[x, y]]]


And I get an error that The Jacobian is not a matrix of numbers at {x,y} = inits. So I try instead

f[x_, y_] := {x^x + y^y - 20, x + y - 4}
df0[x_, y_] = Outer[D, f[x, y], {x,y}];
SetAttributes[df, Listable];
df[x_, y_] := df0[x, y]
inits = RandomReal[{2, 3}, {2, 10}];
Block[{x, y},
FindRoot[f[x, y], {{x, inits[]}, {y, inits[]}},
Jacobian :> df[x, y]]]


Which produces the same error, however in this case if I evaluate df@@inits, I do indeed get a list of matrices of numbers. So I am confused about this.

I have tried also with explicit ?VectorQ, like so;

f[x_?VectorQ, y_?VectorQ] := {x^x + y^y - 20, x + y - 4}
df0[x_?VectorQ, y_?VectorQ] =
Outer[D, {x^x + y^y - 20, x + y - 4}, {x, y}];
df[x_?VectorQ, y_?VectorQ] := df0[x, y];
inits = RandomReal[{2, 3}, {2, 10}];
FindRoot[f[x, y], {{x, inits[]}, {y, inits[]}},
Jacobian :> df[x, y]]


And this doesn't work either.

Who knows how to do this?

• You can mark a "block of code" by indenting each line with 4 spaces. This can easily be done by selecting the code portion and pressing Ctrl+K. – halirutan Mar 2 '18 at 12:41
• Ok thanks I'll do that next time – Joe Mar 5 '18 at 14:43

The major problem is to have a fast way to obtain a block diagonal matrix. Moreover, there is a problem with the vectorization of df. In the following I skip the vectorization part (for complicated functions in several variables, vectorization is not always more performant).

xx = Table[CompileGetElement[x, i], {i, 1, 2}];
f = x \[Function] Evaluate[N[{xx[]^xx[] + xx[]^xx[] - 20, xx[] + xx[] - 4}]];
Df = x \[Function] Evaluate[N[D[f[xx], {xx, 1}]]];


Regarding the block diagonal matrix, I compute its column indices and row pointers by hand and store them for later use in DF.

m = Length[xx];
n = 10000;
ci = Flatten[
Transpose[{Partition[Partition[Range[m n], 1], m]}[[ConstantArray[ 1, m]]]],
2];
rp = Range[0, m m n, m];


F and DF are sort of wrapper functions that constitute the high dimensional system. I use BlockMap in order to apply f and Df to flat list of length 2 n. This is actually where the block diagonal matrix is produced.

F = X \[Function] Flatten@(BlockMap[f, X, m]);
DF = X \[Function] SparseArray @@ {Automatic, {m n, m n},
0., {1, {rp, ci}, Flatten[BlockMap[Df, X, m]]}};


For speeding up even further (and as substitute for vectorization), I also compile f and Df and create wrapper functions for them.

With[{code = f[xx]},
cf = Compile[{{x, _Real, 1}},
code,
CompilationTarget -> "C",
RuntimeAttributes -> {Listable},
Parallelization -> True,
RuntimeOptions -> "Speed"
]
];
With[{code = Df[xx]},
cDf = Compile[{{x, _Real, 1}},
code,
CompilationTarget -> "C",
RuntimeAttributes -> {Listable},
Parallelization -> True,
RuntimeOptions -> "Speed"
]
];
cF = X \[Function] cf[Partition[Abs[X], m]];
cDF = X \[Function] SparseArray @@ {Automatic, {m n, m n}, 0., {1, {rp, ci}, Flatten[cDf[Partition[Abs[X], m]]]}};


Now, we have at least 4 ways to solve the systems; let's try them out and compare! (I use Quiet to suppress some errors that get produced in the compiled function, probalby during the line search...)

X = X0 = RandomReal[{2, 3}, {n m}];

Y = Map[x \[Function] FindRoot[f, {{x}}, Jacobian -> Df],
Partition[X0, m]]; // AbsoluteTiming // First
cY = Quiet[Map[x \[Function] FindRoot[cf, {{x}}, Jacobian -> cDf],
Partition[X0, m]]]; // AbsoluteTiming // First
X = FindRoot[F, {X0}, Jacobian -> DF][]; // AbsoluteTiming // First
cX = Quiet[FindRoot[cF, {X0}, Jacobian -> cDF][]]; // AbsoluteTiming // First


3.29515

2.45185

1.19915

0.353124

Residuals:

Max[Abs[F[Flatten[Y]]]]
Max[Abs[F[Flatten[cY]]]]
Max[Abs[F[X]]]
Max[Abs[F[cX]]]


8.52651*10^-14

8.52651*10^-14

3.55271*10^-15

3.55271*10^-15

And the differences are:

Max[Abs[Flatten[X] - Flatten[Y]]]
Max[Abs[Flatten[X] - Flatten[cY]]]
Max[Abs[Flatten[X] - Flatten[cX]]]


2.88658*10^-15

2.88658*10^-15

6.66134*10^-16

• OK so I just threw this into Mathematica and I haven't really understood what's going on in too much detail yet. I get CompiledFunction::cfne: Numerical error encountered; proceeding with uncompiled evaluation. on the lines when you actually do the calculation. Is that what you were suppressing with Quiet? Is this a problem or not? – Joe Mar 15 '18 at 10:48
• Also what is the purpose of the Compile GetElement? I see you and the other Compile wizards use this a lot and I don't really get what's wrong with Part within Compile? – Joe Mar 15 '18 at 10:54
• OK further questions: 1) Why do we have Abs in cF = X \[Function] cf[Partition[Abs[X], 2]];? Isn't this restricting the domain of the function to be only positive real numbers or something? I don't think I want to do that. 2) I guess that the {Automatic, {m n, m n}, 0., {1, {rp, ci}, Flatten[BlockMap[Df, X, m]]}} is a set of options for Jacobian in FindRoot? Can you run me through what each one is? I can't see them in the documentation – Joe Mar 15 '18 at 11:02
• The F and the DF, I presumably won't need these if I implement your fourth (fastest) method in my algorithm, and they're just to show that it's quicker with Compile? You also talk about a block diagonal matrix, but I can't actually see any block diagonal matrices anywhere? Why do we have to turn off Part::partd? – Joe Mar 15 '18 at 11:09
• Turning off Part::partd`: I edited the post. Supressing error messages should better avoided and if necessay, should only be done locally. – Henrik Schumacher Mar 15 '18 at 11:17