# Meshing a thin tube

I'd like to mesh a thin tube. The following gives a strange result when thickness becomes too small:

height = 3;
thickness = .06;

ir = ImplicitRegion[(radius - thickness)^2 <= x^2 + y^2 <= radius &&
0 <= z <= height, {x, y, z}];
mesh = ToElementMesh[
"MeshOrder" -> 1, MaxCellMeasure -> 0.0003]


As you can see it is not quite a cylinder...

Ideally, I'd like to mesh cylinders with thicknesses as small as 0.005. How can it be done?

This can sometimes happen if the region bounds intersect with the region it self. If you look at the output of the ElementMesh you will see that it's bounds do not go from -radius to radius.

mesh["Bounds"]
{{-0.995306, 0.995306}, {-0.995306, 0.995306}, {0., 3.}}


The fix is easy: just enlarge the bounding box a bit:

height = 3;
thickness = .06;

Needs["NDSolveFEM"]
ir = ImplicitRegion[(radius - thickness)^2 <= x^2 + y^2 <= radius &&
0 <= z <= height, {x, y, z}];
mesh = ToElementMesh[ir, {{-rt, rt}, {-rt, rt}, {0, height}},
"MeshOrder" -> 1, MaxCellMeasure -> 0.0003];


Look at the bounds:

mesh["Bounds"]
{{-1., 1.}, {-1., 1.}, {0., 3.}}


Look at the mesh:

mesh["Wireframe"]


Update:

Another option is to manually generate the a hex element based mesh for this case:

Needs["NDSolveFEM"]

nx = 100; ny = 5; nz = 100;
coordinates =
Flatten[ Table[{r Cos[\[Theta]], r Sin[\[Theta]], h}, {h, 0.,
3., (3 - 0)/(nz - 1)}, {r, 1. - 0.05,
1., (1. - (1 - 0.05))/(ny - 1)}, {\[Theta], 0.,
2 Pi, (2 Pi - 0.)/(nx - 1)}], 2];

mkIncidents =
Compile[{{nx, _Integer, 0}, {ny, _Integer, 0}, {nz, _Integer, 0}},
Flatten[
Table[Block[{p1 = (j - 1)*nx + i, p2 = j*nx + i, p3 = p2 + 1,
p4 = p1 + 1, p5, p6, p7, p8},
{p5, p6, p7, p8} = {p1, p2, p3, p4} + k*nx*ny;
{p1, p2, p3, p4} += (k - 1)*nx*ny;
{p1, p2, p3, p4, p5, p6, p7, p8}], {i, 1, nx - 1}, {j, 1,
ny - 1}, {k, 1, nz - 1}], 2]
];

incidents = mkIncidents[nx, ny, nz];

mesh =
ToElementMesh["Coordinates" -> coordinates,
"MeshElements" -> {HexahedronElement[incidents]}]

ElementMesh[{{-0.999497, 1.}, {-0.999874, 0.999874}, {0.,
3.}}, {HexahedronElement["<" 39204 ">"]}]

mesh["Wireframe"]


Playing with the nx,ny and nz allows you to influence the the quality which you can inspect with:

Histogram[mesh["Quality"]]

• Do you manage to mesh with thickness = 0.01? I either get an error, or I can reduce MaxCellMeasure but it never ends. Commented Feb 2, 2018 at 18:03
• @anderstood, yes with MaxCellMeasure -> 0.0000015 it gives me 1.3M tets. I am a bit surprised that I need to specify the MaxCellMeasure, but I assume because of the high aspect ratio the automatic MaxCellMeasure computation fails. This does not look quite correct. Commented Feb 2, 2018 at 19:16
• OK, thanks. I stopped the computation after 30 min... Anyway I think the mesh is not quite optimal for the FEM (elements are pretty distorted). I need to read more about meshing with Mathematica. Thanks again for your help. Commented Feb 2, 2018 at 19:25
• @anderstood with V11.2 on my laptop it took 70sec. so 30 Min is way too long. Another idea: See update. Commented Feb 2, 2018 at 20:02