# Simplify expressions with PolyGamma (Special Function) and complex number

Integrate the Fejér kernel from 0 to $\pi\,,$ will get $\pi\,,$ which can be written as

$$\int_0^\pi \left( \frac{\sin(nt/2)}{\sin(t/2)} \right)^2 \,dt = n\pi$$

We can simply verify the equation by

Input:

Integrate[(Sin[n t/2]/Sin[t/2])^2, {t, 0, Pi}]~Table~{n, 10} // Timing


Output:

{2.17188, {π, 2π, 3π, 4π, 5π, 6π, 7π, 8π, 9π, 10π}}


Now let's do the formal calculation with the bizarre MMA.

Input:

Integrate[(Sin[n t/2]/Sin[t/2])^2, {t, 0, Pi},
Assumptions -> n ∈ Integers] // Timing
%[[-1]] ~ FunctionExpand ~ (Assumptions -> n ∈ Integers)
% // FullSimplify


The last one of Out:

-(1/2) I E^(-I n π) (1 + E^(2 I n π) +
2 E^(I n π) n π Cot[n π] + n PolyGamma[0, 1/2 - n/2] -
n PolyGamma[0, -(n/2)] + E^(2 I n π) n PolyGamma[0, n/2] -
E^(2 I n π) n PolyGamma[0, (1 + n)/2]) ## Question (All Solved ✅)

Q1. What is the approach to get rid of these complicated outputs? Or how to simplify them into $n\pi$?

Q2. Why it take so long to calculate? Any accelerate method? (Solved by @bob-hanlon and @akku14)

Many thanks!

P.S. FindSequenceFunction is pointless.

# Solution of Q1

f[e_] := Count[e, _PolyGamma, Infinity]
Integrate[(Sin[n t/2]/Sin[t/2])^2 // TrigReduce, {t, 0, Pi}]
FullSimplify[%, ComplexityFunction -> f]
FullSimplify[%, n ∈ Integers]


(Chance encounter in 2017-12-31 15:00, when reading the penultimate one in this topic in the official document~)

• FindSequenceFunction[ Integrate[(Sin[n t/2]/Sin[t/2])^2, {t, 0, Pi}]~Table~{n, 10}, n] – Bob Hanlon Oct 19 '17 at 1:52
• Note that the integral can be reformulated in terms of the Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind (ChebyshevU[]). – J. M. will be back soon Oct 31 '17 at 8:09
• Table[2 Integrate[(ChebyshevU[n - 1, Cos[t]])^2, {t, 0, Pi/2}], {n, 10}] – J. M. will be back soon Mar 10 '18 at 1:31
• @J.M. Thanks for the knowledge, though Mma doesn't perform symbolic computation for this. 😂 – ooo Mar 10 '18 at 16:03

This addresses the request for an acceleration method.

\$Version

(* "11.2.0 for Mac OS X x86 (64-bit) (September 11, 2017)" *)

Integrate[(Sin[n t/2]/Sin[t/2])^2, {t, 0, Pi}]~
Table~{n, -5, 5} // AbsoluteTiming

(* {0.684515, {5 π, 4 π, 3 π, 2 π, π, 0, π, 2 π, 3 π, 4 π, 5 π}} *)


Note that the integrals are Abs[n] π rather than n π

You can accelerate the integration for general n using TrigReduce

(int[n_] =
Integrate[(Sin[n t/2]/Sin[t/2])^2 // TrigReduce, {t, 0, Pi}] //
ComplexExpand // FullSimplify // FunctionExpand //
FullSimplify) // AbsoluteTiming

(* {12.12901, (1/2)*(2 + n*Pi*Cot[(n*Pi)/2] -
n*(PolyGamma[0, 1/2 - n/2] - 2*PolyGamma[0, n/2] +
PolyGamma[0, (1 + n)/2]))*Sin[n*Pi]} *)


This representation is Indeterminate for integer n; however, the limits provide the expected results.

int

(* Infinity::indet: Indeterminate expression 0 ComplexInfinity encountered.

Indeterminate *)

Table[Limit[int[n], n -> m], {m, -5, 5}]

(* {5 π, 4 π, 3 π, 2 π, π, 0, π, 2 π, 3 π, 4 π, 5 π} *)


Apply TrigReduce to the integrand an you get the integral quite fast. For unknown reasons the integral has singularities at n, therefore apply Limit.

(int[n_] = Integrate[(Sin[n t/2]/Sin[t/2])^2 // TrigReduce, {t, 0, Pi},
Assumptions -> n \[Element] Integers && n > 0]) // Timing

(*     {10.094, -(1/2)
I E^(-I n \[Pi]) (1 + 2 E^(I n \[Pi]) n \[Pi] Cot[n \[Pi]] +
n PolyGamma[0, 1/2 - n/2] - n PolyGamma[0, -(n/2)] +
E^(2 I n \[Pi]) (1 + n PolyGamma[0, n/2] -
n PolyGamma[0, (1 + n)/2]))}     *)

Table[Limit[int[n], n -> j] // FullSimplify, {j, 0, 10}]

(*     {0, Pi, 2 Pi, 3 Pi, 4 Pi, 5 Pi, 6 Pi, 7 Pi,
8 Pi, 9 Pi, 10 Pi}     *)