# Nested Integrate and NIntegrate: Analytic and Numeric solutions?

Here is a function $F(r)$ which contains double integrations

$$F(r)=\exp\left[ \int_{0}^r dw \,\exp\left(-\int_{0}^w ds \frac{s^2}{s^2+1} \left(1-\exp(- s)\right) \right) \right]$$

I am fine for either/both obtaining

(1) a analytic solutions $F(r)$ (say, in terms of just a function of $r$),

or

(2) a numerical function of $r$ (say, a x-y plot of x=$r$ v.s. y=$f(r)$, even just a selection of points running from $\{r, 0, 100, 1\}$)

I find the most challenge part is that the choices we can make for doing the Integrate and NIntegrate. How to wisely choose NIntegrate and Integrate to obtain the answer.

For example, what will be the plot of Plot[F(r),{r,0,100}] or ListPlot[F(r),{r,0,100,1}] looks like?

The inner integral can be performed symbolically by

si = Integrate[s^2 (1 - Exp[-s])/(s^2 + 1), {s, 0, w}, Assumptions -> w > 0]
(* w - ArcTan[w] + 1/2 (-2 + 2 E^-w - I E^I ExpIntegralEi[-I] +
I E^-I ExpIntegralEi[I] + I E^I ExpIntegralEi[-I - w] - I E^-I ExpIntegralEi[I - w]) *)


and the outer integral numerically by

s = NDSolveValue[{f'[w] == Exp[-si], f[0] == 0}, f, {w, 0, 10}];
F[r_] := Exp[s[r]]
Plot[F[r], {r, 0, 10}, PlotRange -> All, AxesLabel -> {r, "F"},
ImageSize -> Large, LabelStyle -> Directive[Bold, Black, Medium]]


Although certainly not necessary, it is possible to simplify si as follows.

FullSimplify[ComplexExpand[si, TargetFunctions -> {Re, Im}], w > 0];
% /. 1/2 I E^-I (E^(2 I) ExpIntegralEi[-I - w] - ExpIntegralEi[I - w])
-> Im[Exp[-I] ExpIntegralEi[I - w]]
% /. CosIntegral[1] Sin[1] - 1/2 Cos[1] (Pi + 2 SinIntegral[1]) - 1
-> N[CosIntegral[1] Sin[1] - 1/2 Cos[1] (Pi + 2 SinIntegral[1]) - 1]
(* -2.07596 + E^-w + w - ArcTan[w] + Im[E^-I ExpIntegralEi[I - w]] *)

• thanks +1, I am puzzled. At $r=0$, should the $F(r)=1$, since the exponent in the exponential is $0$ so $e^0=1$? Why is your $F(r)=0$? Commented Oct 5, 2017 at 16:13
• Yes, it should be 1. I misread your question. But, the fix is easy, and I shall make it in a few minutes. Thanks for catching my error. Commented Oct 5, 2017 at 16:51
• Other than that, the way I fix it is by also setting the boundary condition, do you think we need f[0] == 1 instead of your f[0] == 0? I think it makes more sense Commented Oct 5, 2017 at 17:41
• No, the value of the outer integral is zero at r == 0. It is the value of the exponential of that integral that is 1 at r == 0. Commented Oct 5, 2017 at 17:44

Thank you for your correction of the question and revising to replace r with s which changes the problem.

Exp[Integrate[Exp[-Integrate[s^2/(s^2+1)(1-Exp[-s]), {s,0,w}]], {w,0,r}]]


which gives

E^Integrate[ConditionalExpression[
E^(-w + ArcTan[w] + (2 - 2/E^w + I*E^I*ExpIntegralEi[-I] -
(I*ExpIntegralEi[I])/E^I - I*E^I*ExpIntegralEi[-I - w] +
(I*ExpIntegralEi[I - w])/E^I)/2), Re[w] > 0 && Im[w]==0], {w,0,r}]


because MMA can't determine whether all your values are real. Adding assumptions such as bbgodfrey did can then simplify this to probably what you are looking for.

• NO there is a $s$ in the integraand, it is a typo, I am sorry. I vote you up. But please take it into account Commented Oct 5, 2017 at 4:49