Does anyone know why I just get the input back?

     DSolve[D[u[x, y, z], x]*x*(z - 2*y^2) + D[u[x, y, z], y]*y*
                 (z - y^2 - 2*x^3) == z*(z - y^2 - 2*x^3), 
                 u[x, y, z], {x, y, z}]

I've obtained the two first integrals of the PDE analytically but the third is tricky so I thought I'd ask Mathematica.

$\frac{dz}{0}$ implies $z=C_1$

$\frac{y^{-1}dy+z^{-1}du}{0}=\frac{d(\log y+z^{-1}u)}{0}$ implies $\log y+\frac{u}{z}=C_2$


  • $\begingroup$ Are you sure this is a "quasi-linear" PDE? Also, what do you mean by dividing by $0$? I don't understand the maths, and their relationship with the Mathematica question. $\endgroup$
    – anderstood
    Sep 14 '17 at 18:08
  • $\begingroup$ All the first derivatives appear linearly meaning it is quasi-linear. The notation is often used but it just means that $z$ is a first integral of the system. So the solution should be $F(z,e^\frac{u}{z}+y,?)=0$ $\endgroup$ Sep 14 '17 at 18:29
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for the explanations. Using the definition of reference.wolfram.com/language/tutorial/… it seems to me your PDE is simply linear. Anyway that does not answer the question. $\endgroup$
    – anderstood
    Sep 14 '17 at 18:35
  • $\begingroup$ Sure thing! Yes, linear sorry. Wondered if it wasnt one of those common pitfalls :) $\endgroup$ Sep 14 '17 at 18:38

Because z enters into the PDE only as a parameter, it is convenient (but not necessary) to rewrite the PDE as

D[u[x, y], x]*x*(z - 2*y^2) + D[u[x, y], y]*y*(z - y^2 - 2*x^3) == z*(z - y^2 - 2*x^3)

This equation, if it can be solved, should be solved by the method of characteristics, as the OP began to do in the question. Define in the usual way,

p = x (-2 y^2 + z);
q = y (-2 x^3 - y^2 + z);
r = z (-2 x^3 - y^2 + z);

Then, two equations determining the characteristics are

D[u[x, y], x] - r/p == 0;
D[u[x, y], y] - r/q == 0;

However, the results of solving these characteristic equations is meaningful only if the equations are consistent; i.e., if

Simplify[D[D[u[x, y], x] - r/p, y] == D[D[u[x, y], y] - r/q, x]]

is True. In fact, the result is

(* (y (4 x^3 - z) z)/(x (2 y^2 - z)) == 0 *)

Hence, the characteristic equations are not, in general, consistent, just as observed by user64494, using Maple.

The equations are, however, consistent for z == 0, in which case the PDE can be solved. Setting z -> 0 in the PDE and dividing out a common factor of y then gives,

D[u[x, y], x]*x*(z - 2*y^2) + D[u[x, y], y]*y*(z - y^2 - 2*x^3) == 
    z*(z - y^2 - 2*x^3) /. z -> 0;
Simplify[#/y & /@ %]

(* (2 x^3 + y^2) D[u[x, y], x] +2 x y D[u[x, y], y] == 0 *)

which can be solved by the method described in Sec 2.2 of the article by Scott Sarra, based on solving its characteristic equation.

FullSimplify[DSolve[D[x[y], y] == ((p/q) /. {z -> 0, x -> x[y]}), x[y], y]]

(* {{x[y] -> (2 3^(1/3) C[1] + 2^(1/3) (9 y^2 + Sqrt[81 y^4 - 12 C[1]^3])^(2/3))/
     (6^(2/3) (9 y^2 + Sqrt[81 y^4 - 12 C[1]^3])^(1/3))}, ...}} *)

The second and third solutions are complex and, therefore, not useful for the real-valued PDE. u[x, y] is by this method an arbitrary function of C[1], expressed as a function of x and y:

Solve[%[[1, 1]] /. Rule -> Equal, C[1]] /. x[y] -> x

(* {{C[1] -> 0}, {C[1] -> (x^3 - y^2)/x}} *)

The first root corresponds to u[x, y] constant, which indeed does satisfy the z == 0 PDE. The second root corresponds to

u[x, y] -> c[(x^3 - y^2)/x]

where c is an arbitrary function of its argument. To verify that this final result is correct, substitute it back into the PDE.

Unevaluated[(2 x^3 + y^2) D[u[x, y], y] + 2 x y D[u[x, y], x] == 0] 
    /. u[x, y] -> c[(x^3 - y^2)/x];
% // Simplify

(* True *)

In summary, the original PDE has no solution unless z == 0. When z does vanish, u[x, t] is an arbitrary function of (x^3 - y^2)/x.

  • $\begingroup$ Thank you for such a detailed analysis! $\endgroup$ Oct 17 '17 at 20:49

Maple 2017.2 outputs: Warning: System is inconsistent . See here: enter image description here

  • $\begingroup$ Thank-you, its a tutorial question. I guess these things happen. $\endgroup$ Sep 14 '17 at 18:50
  • $\begingroup$ This answer would be more interesting if it explained the inconsistency. $\endgroup$
    – anderstood
    Sep 14 '17 at 19:30
  • $\begingroup$ @anderstood: The execution of the above code at printlevel:=25 shows Maple uses differential algebra tools to this end. I am not a specialist in this field so I can say nothing. You may ask your questions in mapleprimes.com. $\endgroup$
    – user64494
    Sep 14 '17 at 19:48
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ @anderstood The characteristic equations associated with the PDE are inconsistent in that their cross derivatives are not equal. $\endgroup$
    – bbgodfrey
    Sep 15 '17 at 4:39

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