Suppose that we have two matrices $\mathbf A$ and $\mathbf B$ which are known to us and both of them are square matrices of the same dimensions.

Now we want to find a square matrix $\mathbf C$ that solves following equation:

$$\mathbf C=\mathbf A\mathbf C\mathbf A^\top+\mathbf B$$

How can we find this $\mathbf C$ matrix in Mathematica?

Just for additional information, it is for finding the state-space unconditional covariance matrix



1 Answer 1


LyapunovSolve[] is designed for this:

amat = Array[a, {2, 2}]; bmat = Array[b, {2, 2}];
cmat = LyapunovSolve[{amat, -IdentityMatrix[Length[amat]]},
                     {IdentityMatrix[Length[amat]], Transpose[amat]}, -bmat];


amat.cmat.Transpose[amat] + bmat - cmat // Simplify
   {{0, 0}, {0, 0}}

Alternatively, you can reformulate as a Kronecker product linear system:

cmat2 = Partition[LinearSolve[KroneckerProduct[amat, amat] - 
                              -Flatten[bmat]], Length[amat]];


amat.cmat2.Transpose[amat] + bmat - cmat2 // Simplify
   {{0, 0}, {0, 0}}
  • 3
    $\begingroup$ Thanks for your help. I checked Mathematica documentation and you are right. I should use LyapunovSolve[], but since it is a discrete version, I should use DiscreteLyapunovSolve[]. $\endgroup$
    – George
    Sep 11, 2017 at 20:42

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