Were these pictures made by Mathematica or MATLAB? And how could I make ones like them?
These pictures must have been made with a raytracer. By default, MATLAB and Mathematica use shading only for rendering 3D-images.
But one can use both MATLAB and Mathematica to generate the geometry as a triangle mesh. Afterwards one can render the images by using an external, dedicated raytracing tool, e.g. blender, which has a nice user interface. I also made good experience with running POVray from the command line.
Anyways, these pictures are highly artistic and it must have taken several days to design them.