Yes, PostScipt. Mathematica 11.0 has less support than say 4.0: however it does still have support. Compressed PostScript is know as "PDF".
A different route to go would be AutoCAD (see Export documentation) - AutoCAD has a vector editor.
PostScript is a programming language that et alia has excellent 2D vector graphics that Mathematica uses (it runs on network printers).
Infact older Mathematica could not show Arrow in the front end without PostScript.
The caveate is 3D vector graphics are notoriously not easily imported / exported: they get the scene right, but when you export/import you loose the ability to EDIT the scene, and this is true of other formats too (ie, xfig - if you export from that then import into a difference vector editor you'll may have lost all your groupings and have a document that's nearly impossible to edit).
Finally, there's 3DStudio and even raytracing (again, see Export). Just because it's in 3D doesn't mean you can't use vectors on 2 axis and import/export them: and using 3D there are more options?
Graphics3Dwith only simplest primitives (
Text) would be a huge step forward (I mean without resorting to
ImportString[ExportString[#, "PDF"], "PDF"]&of course)! $\endgroup$