# Plotting an integral equation

I would like to draw the solution of the following equation in a log-log plot of $\lambda$ against $M$.

$$10^{-10} = \frac{\lambda^{2}}{(4\pi)^{2}}\int_{0}^{1}dz\frac{(1-x)^{3}}{(1-x)^{2}+zM^{2}}$$

Here is my code:

table = Table[{Exp[M], λ /.
NSolve[((λ^2)/(4 *Pi)^(2)) *
NIntegrate[(((1-x)^3)/((1-x)^2 + Exp[2 M] x)), {x, 0, 1}] ==
10^(-10), λ][]},
{M, -15, 15, 0.03}];
ListLogLogPlot[table, Joined \[RightArrow] True,
AxesOrigin \[RightArrow] {1, 1}]


With this code, I get a list of error messages and a list of the output values, but not the plot. How do I get the plot?

• Your question is unclear. Do you want the value of the full expression for different values of λ and $M$? And what is AxesoutpOrigin? And why use \[Minus] instead of -? – David G. Stork Feb 10 '17 at 1:46
• Oh, no! See my edits in the equation and in the code. – nightmarish Feb 10 '17 at 1:50
• I want the solution of the edited equation. AxesoutpOrigin should actually be AxesOutput. And I've replaced [Minus] with the minus sign. – nightmarish Feb 10 '17 at 1:52
• A \[Minus] remains... – David G. Stork Feb 10 '17 at 1:53
• all of them now replaced – nightmarish Feb 10 '17 at 1:53

Why not make things easier and solve the integral exactly?

After making the integration variable consistently $\text{x}$ and changing it to $\text{x}\to 1-\text{x}$, the integral can be calculated explicitly. (In order to assist Mathematica in solving the integral we also assume temporarily that $\text{M}<-2$ such that the roots of the denominator are real.)

We get

f[M_] = Integrate[x^3/(x^2 + (1 - x) M^2), {x, 0, 1}, Assumptions -> M < -2] //
FullSimplify

(* Out= (Sqrt[-4 + M^2] (1 + 2 M^2) - M^2 Sqrt[-4 + M^2] (-1 + M^2) Log[M^2] -
M^3 (-3 + M^2) Log[1/2 (-2 + M^2 - M Sqrt[-4 + M^2])])/(2 Sqrt[-4 + M^2]) *)


$$f(\text{M})=\int_0^1 \frac{x^3}{x^2+(1-x)M^2 } \, dx\\= \frac{1}{2} \left(\left(2 M^2+1\right)-M^2 \left(M^2-1\right) \log \left(M^2\right)\right)\\-\frac{\left(M^3 \left(M^2-3\right)\right) \log \left(\frac{1}{2} \left(M^2- M\sqrt{M^2-4}-2\right)\right)}{2 \sqrt{M^2-4}}$$

The result now holds for all real $\text{M}$.

At the special points it is

Limit [f[M], M -> 0]

(* Out= 1/2 *)

{Limit [f[M], M -> 2], Limit [f[M], M -> -2]}

(* Out= {17/2 - 12 Log, 17/2 - 6 Log} *)

Series[f[M], {M, \[Infinity], 2}] // Normal

(* Out= (-(11/6) - 2 Log[1/M])/M^2 *)


And here's the graph

Plot[f[M], {M, -10, 10},
PlotLabel -> "The integral as a function of M"] Now the function $\lambda$ is defined as

ld[M_] := 4 \[Pi] 10^-5/Sqrt[f[M]]


A log-log-plot (which is naturally confined to positive quantities) is then

LogLogPlot[ld[M], {M, .001, 15}, PlotLabel -> "Log-log-plot",
AxesLabel -> {"Log[M]", "log[\[Lambda]]"}] • +1 Evaluating the integral is a great enhancement. – Jack LaVigne Feb 10 '17 at 14:26

Here is your graph, once you delete the non-converged values:

ListLogLogPlot[table, AxesOrigin -> {1,1}] • How can I make (1,1) the point where the axes cross? – nightmarish Feb 10 '17 at 2:01