# Solve implicit complicated equation

I have to solve the following implicit equation:

1/Sqrt[16 π^4 + 8 π^2 y^2 + y^4 -
4 y^2 x^2] (Sqrt[16 π^4 + 8 π^2 y^2 + y^4 - 4 y^2 x^2] -
Sqrt[16 π^4 + 8 π^2 y^2 + y^4 - 4 y^2 x^2]
Cos[1/2 Sqrt[4 π^2 + y^2 - 2 y x]] Cos[
1/2 Sqrt[4 π^2 + y^2 + 2 y x]] + (4 π^2 + y^2 -
2 x^2) Sin[1/2 Sqrt[4 π^2 + y^2 - 2 y x]] Sin[
1/2 Sqrt[4 π^2 + y^2 + 2 y x]])==0


I am trying :

f[x_, y_] :=
1/Sqrt[16 π^4 + 8 π^2 y^2 + y^4 -
4 y^2 x^2] (Sqrt[16 π^4 + 8 π^2 y^2 + y^4 - 4 y^2 x^2] -
Sqrt[16 π^4 + 8 π^2 y^2 + y^4 - 4 y^2 x^2]
Cos[1/2 Sqrt[4 π^2 + y^2 - 2 y x]] Cos[
1/2 Sqrt[4 π^2 + y^2 + 2 y x]] + (4 π^2 + y^2 -
2 x^2) Sin[1/2 Sqrt[4 π^2 + y^2 - 2 y x]] Sin[
1/2 Sqrt[4 π^2 + y^2 + 2 y x]])
g[x_, y_] :=
Assuming[{{x, y} ∈ Reals, x >= 2 π}, Simplify[f[x, y]]]
Solve[g[x, y] == 0, {y}]


I receive the message: Solve: This system cannot be solved with the methods available to Solve.

What's wrong? Any suggestion is much appreciated. Thanks for your help.

• Unfortunately, as the docs state, "Solve deals primarily with linear and polynomial equations". As written, your equation may simply be more than Solve can handle. If you can work with a numerical solution, then look into FindRoot. – MarcoB Jan 25 '17 at 0:09
• Also, are you sure that you want to solve only for $y$? Any solution would be expressed as a function of $x$ then. Are you trying to find an explicit expression for $y=f(x)$? There may not be one. – MarcoB Jan 25 '17 at 0:17
• There seems to be an extra conditional == in f[x,y]. – Anjan Kumar Jan 25 '17 at 0:20
• yes i want an explicit expression for y=f(x), is there a solution? – Kimou Jan 25 '17 at 1:10
• It seems highly unlikely that such a complicated expression has an analytic solution. – Felix Jan 25 '17 at 4:08

A little bit of thought + Mathematica reveals a few symmetric solutions:

eqn =(*1/Sqrt[16 π^4+8 π^2 y^2+y^4-4 y^2 x^2] *)
(Sqrt[16 π^4 + 8 π^2 y^2 + y^4 - 4 y^2 x^2] -
Sqrt[16 π^4 + 8 π^2 y^2 + y^4 - 4 y^2 x^2] Cos[1/2 Sqrt[4 π^2 + y^2 - 2 y x]] *
Cos[1/2 Sqrt[4 π^2 + y^2 + 2 y x]] +
(4 π^2 + y^2 - 2 x^2) Sin[1/2 Sqrt[4 π^2 + y^2 - 2 y x]] *
Sin[1/2 Sqrt[4 π^2 + y^2 + 2 y x]]) == 0;

DeleteDuplicates@Cases[eqn, Sqrt[_], Infinity];
sub = Thread[% -> {u v, u, v}];

Subtract @@ eqn /. sub // Simplify
(*  u v - u v Cos[u/2] Cos[v/2] + (4 π^2 - 2 x^2 + y^2) Sin[u/2] Sin[v/2]  *)

sub2 = {u/2 + v/2 -> P, u/2 - v/2 -> Q, u v -> P^2 - Q^2,
y^2 -> P^2 + Q^2 - 4 Pi^2, y^2 + 4 Pi^2 -> P^2 + Q^2,
x^2 -> (P Q)^2/(P^2 + Q^2 - 4 Pi^2)};

(* the form of the u,v equation above can be simplified thus, to show symmetry *)
A - A Cos[b] Cos[c] + B Sin[b] Sin[c] // TrigReduce //
Collect[#, {Cos[b - c], Cos[b + c]}] &
% /. {A -> u v, B -> (4 π^2 - 2 x^2 + y^2), b -> u/2, c -> v/2} //. sub2
(*
A + 1/2 (-A + B) Cos[b - c] + 1/2 (-A - B) Cos[b + c]

P^2 - Q^2 +
1/2 (-2 P^2 + (2 P^2 Q^2)/(P^2 - 4 π^2 + Q^2)) Cos[P] +
1/2 (2 Q^2 - (2 P^2 Q^2)/(P^2 - 4 π^2 + Q^2)) Cos[Q]
*)


This last result represents an equation symmetric with respect to P ↔ Q, P ↔ -P and Q ↔ -Q. One can also see that y == 0 is a solution by inspection. This leads to the following:

(* P^2 == Q^2 by even symmetry of preceding result *)
eqnPQ = P^2 == Q^2 /. Reverse /@ sub2 /. Reverse /@ sub;
sol1 = Append[Solve[eqnPQ, y], {y -> 0}]
eqn /. % // Simplify
(* 5 solutions:
{{y -> -x - Sqrt[-4 π^2 + x^2]}, {y ->  x - Sqrt[-4 π^2 + x^2]},
{y -> -x + Sqrt[-4 π^2 + x^2]}, {y -> x + Sqrt[-4 π^2 + x^2]},
{y -> 0}}
{True, True, True, True, True}    <-- verification
*)

Plot[y /. sol1 // Evaluate, {x, -6 Pi, 6 Pi}, PlotRange -> 6 Pi,
AspectRatio -> Automatic] The red wedges below suggest there are more solutions. The white regions are where the square roots are imaginary.

ContourPlot[
Subtract @@ eqn // Evaluate,
{x, -6 Pi, 6 Pi}, {y, -6 Pi, 6 Pi},
Contours -> {-100, 0, 100, 400},
ContourShading -> {Black, Red, Blue, Lighter[Blue, 0.33], Lighter[Blue, 0.67]},
MaxRecursion -> 3] 